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Fusion neutron sources have many important practical uses, including triggering fission reactions, manufacturing medical isotopes, testing materials and components for use in future fusion power reactors, and facilitating the production of various isotopes like tritium. All these applications can be potentially improved by achieving high energy compact fusion neutron sources ...
Conceptual Development of Steady State Compact Fusion Neutron Sources: Report of a Coordinated Research Project
Fusion neutron sources have many important practical uses, including triggering fission reactions, manufacturing medical isotopes, testing materials and components for use in future fusion power reactors, and facilitating the production of various isotopes like tritium. All these applications can be potentially improved by achieving high energy compact fusion neutron sources (CFNSs). The present publication is a compilation of the main results and findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on the development of concepts and conceptual designs for both low and high power CFNSs. Through the collaboration of experts in the participating Member States, the results achieved under the project laid the foundation for practical applications of intense fusion neutron sources.
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30.68 USD
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This publication describes and summarizes the work of the MODARIA (modelling and data for radiological impact assessments) Programme Working Group 10. MODARIA was set up to continue the IAEA's activities in the field of testing, comparing and developing guidance on the application of models to assess radiation exposures to humans ...
Modelling of Marine Dispersion and Transfer of Radionuclides Accidentally Released from Land Based Facilities
This publication describes and summarizes the work of the MODARIA (modelling and data for radiological impact assessments) Programme Working Group 10. MODARIA was set up to continue the IAEA's activities in the field of testing, comparing and developing guidance on the application of models to assess radiation exposures to humans and radiological impacts on the environment. Different aspects of the MODARIA programme were addressed by ten working groups. The current publication presents the work undertaken by Working Group 10 on the modelling of marine dispersion and transfer of radionuclides accidentally released from land-based facilities. Two marine dispersion scenarios were studied. These scenarios simulated dispersion of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea following the Chernobyl accident, and dispersion in the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The publication details some general conclusions and presents a comparison of model performance when applied to the above scenarios. The difficulties of developing operative modelling systems for supporting decision making in cases of emergencies in highly dynamic environments are highlighted.
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29.66 USD
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This publication addresses inspection basics, concepts and methods on how to plan inspection activities, perform inspections of safety related structures, systems and components, evaluate the safety significance of inspection findings, and document the results. It presents high level considerations for the inspection of selected programmatic areas including plant operations, radiation ...
Handbook for Regulatory Inspectors of Nuclear Power Plants
This publication addresses inspection basics, concepts and methods on how to plan inspection activities, perform inspections of safety related structures, systems and components, evaluate the safety significance of inspection findings, and document the results. It presents high level considerations for the inspection of selected programmatic areas including plant operations, radiation protection, fire protection and maintenance activities at nuclear power plants (NPPs). The publication focuses on the regulatory inspection of operating NPPs and, when applicable, describes how the same inspection techniques can be applied to facilities undergoing construction, preoperational testing, and decommissioning. The general techniques described may be also used in the inspection of other types of nuclear facilities.
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26.250000 USD
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This publication presents a comprehensive summary of the technical work carried out under an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) and provides an overview of Member States' approaches to mitigate challenges that are encountered in achieving reliability, sustainability and safety with advanced pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) fuels. These challenges, which ...
Reliability of Advanced High Power, Extended Burnup Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor Fuels: Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project
This publication presents a comprehensive summary of the technical work carried out under an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) and provides an overview of Member States' approaches to mitigate challenges that are encountered in achieving reliability, sustainability and safety with advanced pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) fuels. These challenges, which were discussed and analyzed by the CRP participants, include fuel performance degradation, insufficient availability of operating experience at high burnup and margin erosion by ageing.
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26.250000 USD
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This publication provides guidance for monitoring and tracking carbon dioxide in the atmosphere or emissions from soil and plant materials using a laser carbon dioxide carbon isotope analyser. Through illustrated step-by-step standard operating procedures this publication assists scientists, technicians and students in techniques ranging from initial calibration of the instrument ...
Use of Laser Carbon Dioxide Carbon Isotope Analysers in Agriculture
This publication provides guidance for monitoring and tracking carbon dioxide in the atmosphere or emissions from soil and plant materials using a laser carbon dioxide carbon isotope analyser. Through illustrated step-by-step standard operating procedures this publication assists scientists, technicians and students in techniques ranging from initial calibration of the instrument to collecting measurements and analysing data. When accurately utilized, this instrumentation can ensure proper evaluation of agricultural management practices to reduce soil carbon dioxide emissions and promote climate-smart agriculture. The final chapter of this publication also presents a case study that demonstrates how this instrumentation can be used.
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26.250000 USD
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IAEA Member States and individual nuclear power plants (NPPs) must carry out radioactive waste processing (treatment and conditioning) in an efficient and cost effective manner. Determination of which of the many available technologies and strategies are best suited to meet national or local needs is often a complex assessment. The ...
Innovative Waste Treatment and Conditioning Technologies at Nuclear Power Plants
IAEA Member States and individual nuclear power plants (NPPs) must carry out radioactive waste processing (treatment and conditioning) in an efficient and cost effective manner. Determination of which of the many available technologies and strategies are best suited to meet national or local needs is often a complex assessment. The aim of this publication is to inform decision makers by presenting information on innovative technologies for processing wastes generated by NPPs. The report identifies the key benefits which may derive from the adoption of those technologies, the different waste streams to which each technology is relevant, and the limitations of the technologies.
24.17 USD

Innovative Waste Treatment and Conditioning Technologies at Nuclear Power Plants

by Iaea
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This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles ...
Fundamental Safety Principles
This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities, existing and new, utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to those risks. These include, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste.
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40.82 USD
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This publication investigates the potential synergies between decommissioning and site remediation in order to allow for the implementation of both processes in an integrated and cost effective way. The publication reviews the planning procedures for, and operational constraints on, partial remediation of sites, and examines, with the aid of case ...
Integrated Approach to Planning the Remediation of Sites Undergoing Decommissioning
This publication investigates the potential synergies between decommissioning and site remediation in order to allow for the implementation of both processes in an integrated and cost effective way. The publication reviews the planning procedures for, and operational constraints on, partial remediation of sites, and examines, with the aid of case studies, the advantages of integrating it with decommissioning. With a discussion of issues relevant to tackling the conceptual, management and technical problems of such a transition, this report constitutes an important resource for engineers and regulatory authorities involved in the remediation of contaminated sites.
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27.24 USD
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The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System (NFCSS) is a scenario based computer simulation tool that can model various nuclear fuel cycle options in various types of nuclear reactors. It is very efficient and accurate in answering questions such as: the nuclear mineral resources and technical infrastructure needed for the front ...
Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System: Improvements and Applications
The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System (NFCSS) is a scenario based computer simulation tool that can model various nuclear fuel cycle options in various types of nuclear reactors. It is very efficient and accurate in answering questions such as: the nuclear mineral resources and technical infrastructure needed for the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle; the amounts of used fuel, actinide nuclides and high level waste generated for a given reactor fleet size; and the impact of introducing recycling of used fuel on mineral resource savings and waste minimization. Since the first publication on the NFCSS as IAEA-TECDOC-1535 in 2007, there have been significant improvements in the implementation of the NFCSS, including a new extension to thorium fuel cycles, methods to calculate decay heat and radiotoxicity, and demonstration applications to innovative reactors.
26.250000 USD
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This publication is the third in a series from the IAEA that provides guidance on the early consideration of safeguards requirements in the design and construction of nuclear facilities. It is principally intended for designers and operators of nuclear fuel fabrication facilities; however, vendors, state authorities and investors may also ...
International Safeguards in the Design of Fuel Fabrication Plants
This publication is the third in a series from the IAEA that provides guidance on the early consideration of safeguards requirements in the design and construction of nuclear facilities. It is principally intended for designers and operators of nuclear fuel fabrication facilities; however, vendors, state authorities and investors may also benefit from the information provided. This guidance is introductory rather than comprehensive; more detailed information on IAEA safeguards implementation can be found in the Guidance for States Implementing Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements and Additional Protocols , IAEA Services Series No. 21 , May 2016 and other publications in that series. This publication expands upon the general considerations addressed in International Safeguards in Nuclear Facility Design and Construction , IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NP-T-2.8 , April 2013.
37.800000 USD
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One of the most important lessons from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant is that a reliable containment venting system can be crucial for effective accident management during severe accidents, especially for smaller volume containments in relation to the rated nuclear power. Containment venting can enhance the ...
Severe Accident Mitigation through Improvements in Filtered Containment Vent Systems and Containment Cooling Strategies for Water Cooled Reactors: Proceedings of a Technical Meeting on Severe Accident Mitigation through Improvements in Filtered Containmen
One of the most important lessons from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant is that a reliable containment venting system can be crucial for effective accident management during severe accidents, especially for smaller volume containments in relation to the rated nuclear power. Containment venting can enhance the capability to maintain core cooling and containment integrity as well as reduce uncontrolled radioactive releases to the environment if the venting system has a filtration capacity. In general, a filtered containment vent system increases the flexibility of plant personnel in coping with unforeseen events. This publication provides the overview of the current status of related activities with the goal to share information between Member States on actions, upgrades, and new technologies pertaining to containment cooling and venting.
31.52 USD
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This publication will assist Member States with the formation and implementation of efficient strategies for safe and cost effective classification and disposal of nuclear wastes. By exploiting the benefits of the scaling factor (SF) method of waste characterization, waste management professionals can facilitate the processing of larger quantities of heterogeneous ...
Determination and Use of Scaling Factors for Waste Characterization in Nuclear Power Plants
This publication will assist Member States with the formation and implementation of efficient strategies for safe and cost effective classification and disposal of nuclear wastes. By exploiting the benefits of the scaling factor (SF) method of waste characterization, waste management professionals can facilitate the processing of larger quantities of heterogeneous radioactive waste. Whereas before, the complexity of quantifying difficult-to-measure (DTM) nuclides within sealed waste packages frustrated the efficient management of their disposal, the new SF methodology exploits known quantifiable ratios of DTM to easy-to-measure (ETM) nuclides so as to facilitate radioactive waste processing. This publication contains guidance and case studies from Member States where the technique has been successfully deployed, and provides an essential and effective complement to the recently published ISO standard 21238:2007 on the same topic.
30.40 USD
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This publication provides an overview of the various plant life management (PLiM) methodologies, technologies and processes to ensure long term operation of heavy water reactors (HWRs). Implementation of a systematic and comprehensive PLiM programme, such as that outlined in the publication, goes a long way towards meeting the overall goal ...
Nuclear Power Plant Life Management Processes: Guidelines and Practices for Heavy Water Reactors: Report Prepared within the framework of the Technical Working Groups on Advanced Technologies for Heavy Water Reactors and on Life Management of Nuclear Powe
This publication provides an overview of the various plant life management (PLiM) methodologies, technologies and processes to ensure long term operation of heavy water reactors (HWRs). Implementation of a systematic and comprehensive PLiM programme, such as that outlined in the publication, goes a long way towards meeting the overall goal of HWR owners and operators to successfully achieve design life and continued operation. Included in this publication are technical aspects of HWR PLiM, component specific technology considerations for condition assessment, an example of a proactive ageing management programme, and Ontario power generation experiences. Country reports from Argentina, Canada, India, the Republic of Korea and Romania are attached in an annex in order to share practices and experiences of PLiM programmes.
16.45 USD
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Radioactive sealed sources are required for the treatment of many tumours and for industrial uses with, for example, Iodine-125, Iridium-192 and Palladium-103 as miniature sources. Miniaturization and high specific activity are the main parameters of modern sealed sources for most applications. This publication provides the methodology and technology of preparation ...
Production Techniques and Quality Control of Sealed Radioactive Sources of Palladium-103, Iodine-125, Iridium-192 and Ytterbium-169: Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2001-2005
Radioactive sealed sources are required for the treatment of many tumours and for industrial uses with, for example, Iodine-125, Iridium-192 and Palladium-103 as miniature sources. Miniaturization and high specific activity are the main parameters of modern sealed sources for most applications. This publication provides the methodology and technology of preparation of miniature sealed sources based on these radioisotopes for medical applications, as well as for industrial quality control. This publication provides practical information about the production of these miniature sealed sources and gives useful procedures for their encapsulation, welding techniques and quality control.
16.45 USD
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Arms control agreements between some nuclear weapon States have led to the dismantling of many of the nuclear weapons in their military stockpiles, which in turn have produced stockpiles of excess weapons-grade high enriched uranium (HEU) from the dismantled weapons. Considering the proliferation potential of HEU, the management, control and ...
Management of High Enriched Uranium for Peaceful Purposes: Status and Trends
Arms control agreements between some nuclear weapon States have led to the dismantling of many of the nuclear weapons in their military stockpiles, which in turn have produced stockpiles of excess weapons-grade high enriched uranium (HEU) from the dismantled weapons. Considering the proliferation potential of HEU, the management, control and disposition of this fissile material has become a primary focus of nuclear non-proliferation efforts worldwide. To lessen the proliferation threat of excess HEU stockpiles, the USA agreed to purchase several tonnes of excess Russian HEU down-blended to low enriched uranium (LEU). Proliferation concerns about HEU have also resulted in a global effort to convert research reactors from HEU to LEU fuel and to minimize civilian use of HEU. This publication addresses HEU management of declared excesses, non-proliferation programmes and options for the use of HEU stockpiles, including disposition programmes. Also addressed are the influence of LEU derived from surplus HEU on the global market for uranium, technical issues associated with utilization and the disposition of HEU.
16.45 USD
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Although natural sources of radiation are not usually of regulatory concern, some exposures to radon and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) may warrant consideration as to whether controls should be applied. More and more countries are regulating exposures to natural sources, and the body of radiological data on such exposures ...
Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM IV): Proceedings of an International Conference held in Szczyrk, Poland, 17-21 May 2004
Although natural sources of radiation are not usually of regulatory concern, some exposures to radon and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) may warrant consideration as to whether controls should be applied. More and more countries are regulating exposures to natural sources, and the body of radiological data on such exposures is growing rapidly. This international conference, NORM IV, is the fourth in a series dating back to 1997, and also follows on from an international symposium held in Rio de Janeiro in 1999 (the proceedings of which were published as IAEA-TECDOC-1271). Among the topics addressed at NORM IV were exposure to radionuclides of natural origin in mining and other industrial operations involving NORM (including environmental impacts), standards and regulation, and measurement techniques including measurement of radon. In line with the IAEA's safety related programme objective to foster information exchange, this publication is aimed at disseminating important new information on exposure to natural sources to a wide spectrum of technical and regulatory personnel working in this area.
16.45 USD
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The number of important and significant events in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is decreasing, and current world industry indicators demonstrate that this has become true throughout the nuclear industry. This is important for the survival and acceptance of the nuclear industry; however, these indicators could hide the existence of a ...
Trending of Low Level Events and Near Misses to Enhance Safety Performance in Nuclear Power Plants
The number of important and significant events in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is decreasing, and current world industry indicators demonstrate that this has become true throughout the nuclear industry. This is important for the survival and acceptance of the nuclear industry; however, these indicators could hide the existence of a multitude of events which are of lower significance and even near misses (a term from the aviation industry to denote `almost accidents') that have not been captured by the existing detection methods and thresholds. The main objective of this publication is to provide examples, methodologies and suggestions to NPP operators on how to implement a procedure to detect, select and process such events. International experience shows that the number of such events ranges from 2000 to 5000 per operating reactor year. Too many plants do not detect or report these low level events. However, these events are the submerged part of the iceberg and must be considered by the operating unit.
16.45 USD
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This publication describes a process for planning and conducting a project to implement digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in the modernization of a nuclear power plant (NPP). Many of the existing NPPs in the world are approaching, or have reached, the midpoint of their design life. At the same ...
Implementing Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems in the Modernization of Nuclear Power Plants
This publication describes a process for planning and conducting a project to implement digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in the modernization of a nuclear power plant (NPP). Many of the existing NPPs in the world are approaching, or have reached, the midpoint of their design life. At the same time, there have been tremendous advances in electronics, computers and networks. These new technologies have been incorporated into the digital I&C hardware and software currently available. Even though advanced digital I&C systems have been used extensively in many other industries, their use in the nuclear industry is still very limited. The complexity of digital I&C systems requires a comprehensive implementation plan to ensure that plant safety is maintained, and this publication presents the experience gained to date. It is intended to be of use to those involved in the design or implementation of such modernization projects.
27.24 USD
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Radiation is widely used in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and provides invaluable benefits. However, radiation sources can be lost or stolen and cause injuries to the people who come into contact with them. Such exposure incidents are rare but it is important that doctors have the means to identify ...
Medical Preparedness and Response
Radiation is widely used in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and provides invaluable benefits. However, radiation sources can be lost or stolen and cause injuries to the people who come into contact with them. Such exposure incidents are rare but it is important that doctors have the means to identify them. This is of particular relevance, given current concern about the potential malevolent use of radioactive sources. The experience gained from past accidental exposures is that often the victims of radiation emergencies are unaware that they may have been exposed to radiation. Even if health consequences of exposure are first seen by medical doctors, a proper diagnosis may not be immediately forthcoming. Lack of knowledge about the clinical effects of radiation exposure is one of the main reasons why many accidental injuries are not recognized sufficiently early to prevent further exposures and to provide for the most effective treatment. This educational material is based on a IAEA-WHO training course on Medical Preparedness and Response to Radiation Emergencies promoting a wider understanding of the health consequences of radiation exposure among health authorities and medical personnel.
16.45 USD
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Globalization has led to a growth in importance of the uranium production industries of the world's developing countries. Uranium supply from these countries could be increasingly important in satisfying worldwide reactor requirements over time. Along with the increasing contribution to worldwide uranium supply, the environmental impact of uranium production in ...
Developments in Uranium Resources, Production, Demand and the Environment
Globalization has led to a growth in importance of the uranium production industries of the world's developing countries. Uranium supply from these countries could be increasingly important in satisfying worldwide reactor requirements over time. Along with the increasing contribution to worldwide uranium supply, the environmental impact of uranium production in developing countries has come under increasing scrutiny from the nuclear power industry, the end users of this supply, and from communities affected by uranium mining and processing. The papers presented at the meeting on Developments in Uranium Resources, Production, Demand and the Environment provide an important overview of uranium production operations and of their environmental consequences in developing countries, as well as offering insight into future production plans and potential.
16.45 USD
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Design and technology development for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) is ongoing in many countries, and there are growing expectations of increased support from the IAEA to interested Member States in the definition of common technology and infrastructure development needs and in the coordination of international R&D efforts for ...
Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactors: Design Features, Safety Approaches and R&D Trends
Design and technology development for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) is ongoing in many countries, and there are growing expectations of increased support from the IAEA to interested Member States in the definition of common technology and infrastructure development needs and in the coordination of international R&D efforts for such reactors. This publication presents a variety of innovative water cooled, gas cooled, liquid metal cooled and non-conventional SMR designs developed worldwide, and examines the technology and infrastructure development needs that may be common to several concepts or lines of such reactors. This publication also gives an updated definition of small reactors without on-site refuelling and a preliminary review of the passive safety design options for SMRs.
16.45 USD
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Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Power generation using fossil fuels, industry and vehicles are responsible for the release of pollutants into the atmosphere. During the combustion process various pollutants such as fly ash, sulphur oxides (SO2 and SO3), nitrogen ...
Radiation Treatment of Gaseous and Liquid Effluents for Contaminant Removal: Proceedings of a Technical Meeting Held in Sofia, 7-10 September 2004
Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Power generation using fossil fuels, industry and vehicles are responsible for the release of pollutants into the atmosphere. During the combustion process various pollutants such as fly ash, sulphur oxides (SO2 and SO3), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO2 + NO) and volatile organic compounds are emitted. Radiation processing using electron beam accelerators has shown promising results in treating this effluent. Over the past few years, radiation treatment techniques have been developed and deployed for ensuring environmental safety from gaseous and liquid effluents. It has been demonstrated that electron beam flue gas treatment (SOx and NOx removal), wastewater purification and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed. The meeting covered all these aspects and this publication provides a good summary of all the relevant information in this field.
16.45 USD
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