The First Three Years of Childhood
This historic book may have numerous typos, missing text or index. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. 1885. Not illustrated. Excerpt: ... CHAPTER X. ON THE ELABORATION OP IDEAS. I. JUDGMENT. "if intelligence cannot exercise itself without distinguishing and comparing, neither can it do so without affirming, either explicitly or implicitly, verbally or otherwise. In other words, every intellectual operation presupposes a judgment; for judgment, according to the definition of Aristotle, is an operation which consists in affirming something about something. We cannot declare anything without believing it; and to believe, to affirm, to judge, are all one. What is it to perceive an object? It is to cognize its shape, position, distance, dimensions, etc., etc. To know, for example, the distance at which an object stands from us, is this not to bring to bear on this object, mentally at any rate, a certain affirmation? Can we form a general idea, without affirming that this idea extends to such and such individuals, and comprehends such and such qualities? We see, indeed, that imagination makes us conceive fictions or chimeras; but even then we affirm either the possibility of the things which we conceive, or the desire that-we have to see them realized. In short, we affirm the subjective fact of these dreams, even when we do not think that they correspond to anything external. Thus, in a word, we can neither perceive, nor compare, nor abstract, nor generalize, nor remember nor imagine, without making an affirmation or a judgment."1 1 Joly, Cours de Fhilosophie, p. 94. The above is a psychologist's definition of judgment. A physiologist will perhaps explain, up to a certain point, its origin and working. Judgment, according to M. Luys, is only the reaction, the repercussion, the affirmation of our personality "in the presence of an excitation from the external world, either moral or physical. The action o...