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The Fourth Crusade was the first, and most famous of the 'diverted' Crusades, which saw the Crusade diverted from its original target, Ayyubi Egypt, to attack the Christian city of Zadar in modern Croatia instead, an attack that was little more than a mercenary action to repay the Venetians for ...
The Fourth Crusade 1202-04: The Betrayal of Byzantium
The Fourth Crusade was the first, and most famous of the 'diverted' Crusades, which saw the Crusade diverted from its original target, Ayyubi Egypt, to attack the Christian city of Zadar in modern Croatia instead, an attack that was little more than a mercenary action to repay the Venetians for their provision of a fleet to the Crusaders. This book examines the combined action and sacking of the city of Zara, which saw the Crusaders temporarily excommunicated by the Pope. It goes on to evaluate how the influence of the Venetians prompted an attack on Constantinople, analyses the siege that followed and describes the naval assault and sacking of the city which saw the Crusaders place Count Baldwin of Flanders on the Byzantine throne.
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25.58 USD

The Fourth Crusade 1202-04: The Betrayal of Byzantium

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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Few centuries in world history have had such a profound and long-lasting impact as the first hundred years of Islamic history. In this book, David Nicolle examines the extensive Islamic conquests between AD 632 and 750. These years saw the religion and culture of Islam erupt from the Arabian Peninsula ...
Great Islamic Conquests 632-750
Few centuries in world history have had such a profound and long-lasting impact as the first hundred years of Islamic history. In this book, David Nicolle examines the extensive Islamic conquests between AD 632 and 750. These years saw the religion and culture of Islam erupt from the Arabian Peninsula and spread across an area far larger than that of the Roman Empire. The effects of this rapid expansion were to shape European affairs for centuries to come. This book examines the social and military history of the period, describing how and why the Islamic expansion was so successful.
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20.950000 USD

Great Islamic Conquests 632-750

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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This second volume of Crusader Warfare focuses on those non-Christian cultures which were most directly involved in the Crusades. Centering on the Islamic world, the Mongol World Empire , its fragmented successor states and certain other non-Christian cultures David Nicolle presents many fascinating aspects of warfare and the historical, cultural ...
Crusader Warfare: v. 2: Muslims, Mongols and the Struggle Against the Crusades
This second volume of Crusader Warfare focuses on those non-Christian cultures which were most directly involved in the Crusades. Centering on the Islamic world, the Mongol World Empire , its fragmented successor states and certain other non-Christian cultures David Nicolle presents many fascinating aspects of warfare and the historical, cultural and economic background of the Islamic military during a much neglected period. In reality the Crusades, and the parallel but separate clash between the Islamic World and the Mongols, resulted from a remarkable variety of political, economic, cultural and religious factors. These campaigns involved an extraordinary array of states, ruling dynasties, ethnic, linguistic and cultural groups as well as the fighting forces associated with these disparate participants.Much current interest in the Crusades reflects the perceived threat of a so-called clash of civilizations and, while warnings of such a supposed clash in our own times are based upon a misunderstanding of the natures of both Western and Islamic civilizations, certain commentators have looked to the medieval Crusades as an earlier example of such a clash. Some have even interpreted the third force of the Mongols as somehow prefiguring the role of China, Japan or the Far East as a whole in the today's world.
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107.100000 USD

Crusader Warfare: v. 2: Muslims, Mongols and the Struggle Against the Crusades

by David Nicolle
Hardback
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Osprey's study of the Normans during the Middle Ages. Despite the small geographic extent of Normandy its people played a crucial role in the history of the medieval world. Ferocity, boundless energy, cunning and a capacity for leadership were their heritage, to which modern scholars would add supreme adaptability and ...
The Normans
Osprey's study of the Normans during the Middle Ages. Despite the small geographic extent of Normandy its people played a crucial role in the history of the medieval world. Ferocity, boundless energy, cunning and a capacity for leadership were their heritage, to which modern scholars would add supreme adaptability and a simple piety. Their amazing military successes resulted from careful planning, speed of movement, decisiveness, daring and sheer ruthlessness. Added to this was a strong business sense and an appreciation of the value of money. Veteran Osprey author David Nicolle describes the history, arms and armour of the remarkable Normans in this fascinating volume.
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19.900000 USD

The Normans

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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Charlemagne's conquest of the Saxons was the hardest fought and most protracted of his wars; it involved 18 campaigns spread across 33 years, a great deal of lower-level fighting and the harshest final peace settlement that Charlemagne ever imposed upon a defeated foe. Rapidly taking on the character of a ...
The Conquest of Saxony AD 782-785: Charlemagne's defeat of Widukind of Westphalia
Charlemagne's conquest of the Saxons was the hardest fought and most protracted of his wars; it involved 18 campaigns spread across 33 years, a great deal of lower-level fighting and the harshest final peace settlement that Charlemagne ever imposed upon a defeated foe. Rapidly taking on the character of a religious conquest from its outset, it also became the most important of all Charlemagne's wars for the future direction and character of European history and began the long process of uniting the German-speaking peoples. With extensive photographs, full colour artworks, maps and bird's-eye-views, this volume unravels the initial stages of a convoluted sequence of events that led to the conquest of the Saxons and ultimately Charlemagne's consolidation of Saxony into the greater Carolingian Empire.
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25.58 USD

The Conquest of Saxony AD 782-785: Charlemagne's defeat of Widukind of Westphalia

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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The 8th century heralded the start of a golden age in the history of the Islamic world. At this time, the Sunni Muslim 'Abb sid Caliphate, with its capital at Baghdad, ruled virtually the entire Islamic world. Islamic military power peaked in the 9th century, but by the end of ...
Armies of the Caliphates, 862-1098
The 8th century heralded the start of a golden age in the history of the Islamic world. At this time, the Sunni Muslim 'Abb sid Caliphate, with its capital at Baghdad, ruled virtually the entire Islamic world. Islamic military power peaked in the 9th century, but by the end of this golden age in the 11th century, the 'Abb sid Caliphs had little political and virtually no military power. Featuring numerous photographs of artefacts and eight full colour plates by Graham Turner, David Nicolle's book examines the recruitment, organization, weaponry and uniforms of the armies of the Caliphates from 862-1098.
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18.850000 USD

Armies of the Caliphates, 862-1098

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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This period saw profound changes, as Scandinavia became greatly influenced by military events and developments elsewhere in Europe. Most noticeably, plate armour began to take over from mail; and important evidence is provided by the remarkable 14th century battle grave finds at Wisby, where many corpses were tipped rapidly into ...
Medieval Scandinavian Armies: v. 2: 1300-1500
This period saw profound changes, as Scandinavia became greatly influenced by military events and developments elsewhere in Europe. Most noticeably, plate armour began to take over from mail; and important evidence is provided by the remarkable 14th century battle grave finds at Wisby, where many corpses were tipped rapidly into mass graves still wearing their armour. This book examines the traces of wounds on the thousand-plus excavated skeletons offering unique insights into the realities of medieval hand-to-hand fighting. Later the increased use of Continental mercenaries introduced massed infantry tactics, especially in Denmark during the almost unceasing 'Union Wars' of the 15th century.
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18.850000 USD

Medieval Scandinavian Armies: v. 2: 1300-1500

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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The Bulgars were a Turkic people who established a state north of the Black Sea. In the late 500s and early 600s AD their state fragmented under pressure from the Khazars; one group moved south into what became Bulgaria, but the rest moved north during the 7th and 8th centuries ...
Armies of the Volga Bulgars & Khanate of Kazan: 9th-16th Centuries
The Bulgars were a Turkic people who established a state north of the Black Sea. In the late 500s and early 600s AD their state fragmented under pressure from the Khazars; one group moved south into what became Bulgaria, but the rest moved north during the 7th and 8th centuries to the basin of the Volga river. There they remained under Khazar domination until the Khazar Khanate was defeated by Kievan Russia in 965. In the 1220s they managed to maul Genghis Khan's Mongols, who returned to devastate their towns in revenge. By the 1350s they had recovered much of their wealth, but they were caught in the middle between the Tatar Golden Horde and the Christian Russian principalities. They were ravaged by these two armies in turn on several occasions between 1360 and 1431. A new city then rose from the ashes - Kazan, originally called New Bulgar - and the successor Islamic Khanate of Kazan resisted the Russians until falling to Ivan the Terrible in 1552. The costumes, armament, armour and fighting methods of the Volga Bulgars during this momentous period are explored in this fully illustrated study.
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17.05 USD

Armies of the Volga Bulgars & Khanate of Kazan: 9th-16th Centuries

by David Nicolle, Viacheslav Shpakovsky
Paperback
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New archaeological material and research underpins this extensive, detailed and beautifully illustrated account of the famous Mamluk Askars who are credited with finally defeating and expelling the Crusaders, halting the Mongol invasion of the Islamic Middle East, and facing down Tamerlane. Probably the ultimate professional soldiers of the medieval period ...
Mamluk 'Askari 1250-1517
New archaeological material and research underpins this extensive, detailed and beautifully illustrated account of the famous Mamluk Askars who are credited with finally defeating and expelling the Crusaders, halting the Mongol invasion of the Islamic Middle East, and facing down Tamerlane. Probably the ultimate professional soldiers of the medieval period they were supposedly recruited as adolescent slaves, though recent research has begun to undermine this oversimplified interpretation of what has been called the Mamluk phenomenon .
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20.46 USD

Mamluk 'Askari 1250-1517

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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By the time of the Crusades, the Islamic world had already developed its own sophisticated styles of fortification. Distinctive and highly effective, the region's unique military architecture continued to evolve in response to the Crusader and Mongol threats, and also drew upon the traditions of their foes and neighbours. The ...
Saracen Strongholds 1100-1500: The Central and Eastern Islamic Lands
By the time of the Crusades, the Islamic world had already developed its own sophisticated styles of fortification. Distinctive and highly effective, the region's unique military architecture continued to evolve in response to the Crusader and Mongol threats, and also drew upon the traditions of their foes and neighbours. The resulting Islamic concepts of military architecture had an influence upon fortifications in Western Europe, including Italy and the Iberian Peninsula. However, Islamic fortifications continued to focus upon the defence of cities and frontiers rather than providing security for feudal aristocracies, as was increasingly the case in Europe. Covering fortifications as far apart as North Africa, Afghanistan and northern India, this volume focuses on the Islamic side of the conflict, highlighting the fortifications in use when the Crusaders sought to reconquer the Holy Land, as well as the eventual absorption of the territories of Byzantium into the Islamic world.
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20.46 USD

Saracen Strongholds 1100-1500: The Central and Eastern Islamic Lands

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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The medieval period was probably the most varied in military history when it came to the development of non-gunpowder military machines. One reason for this was the bringing together of several pre-existing military-technological traditions from the ancient Graeco-Roman World, Persia, India and China. Three civilizations were primarily responsible for the ...
Medieval Siege Weapons: Pt. 2: Byzantium, the Islamic World and India
The medieval period was probably the most varied in military history when it came to the development of non-gunpowder military machines. One reason for this was the bringing together of several pre-existing military-technological traditions from the ancient Graeco-Roman World, Persia, India and China. Three civilizations were primarily responsible for the ease with which such technologies were brought together and combined: the Late-Roman or Byzantine Empire; the Islamic World; and the Mongol World Empire . This work looks at the stone throwing machines that used assorted sources of power from torsion energy storage systems, to manpowered sling devices, counterbalance sling devices and rockets.
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18.850000 USD

Medieval Siege Weapons: Pt. 2: Byzantium, the Islamic World and India

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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Osprey's study of Teutonic Knights from 1190 to 1561. The Military Order of Teutonic Knights was one of the three most famous Crusading Orders; the others being the Templars and the Hospitallers. Like these two, the Teutonic Knights initially focused upon the preservation of the Crusader States in the Middle ...
Teutonic Knight: 12th-16th Centuries
Osprey's study of Teutonic Knights from 1190 to 1561. The Military Order of Teutonic Knights was one of the three most famous Crusading Orders; the others being the Templars and the Hospitallers. Like these two, the Teutonic Knights initially focused upon the preservation of the Crusader States in the Middle East. Wielding their swords in the name of their faith, the crusading knights set out to reclaim Jerusalem. Unlike the Templars they survived the crises of identity and purpose which followed the loss of the last Crusader mainland enclaves in the late thirteenth century and, like the Hospitallers, they managed to create a new purpose - and a new field of combat - for themselves. Whereas the Hospitallers focused their energies in the eastern Mediterranean battling against Muslim armies, the Teutonic Knights shifted their efforts to the Baltic, to the so-called Northern Crusades against pagan Prussians and Lithuanians and, to a lesser extent, against Orthodox Christian Russia. As a result the Order of Teutonic Knights became a significant power, not only in the Baltic but in north-central Europe as a whole. Paradoxically, however, it was their fellow Catholic Christian Polish neighbours who became their most dangerous foes, breaking the Order's power in the mid-fifteenth century. The Teutonic Knights lingered on in what are now Estonia and Latvia for another century, but this was little more than a feeble afterglow. This title will examine this fascinating military and religious order in detail, revealing the colourful history of the crusades within Europe itself which inexorably changed the future of the continent.
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19.900000 USD

Teutonic Knight: 12th-16th Centuries

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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This book tells the fascinating story of the battle of the Kalka River, the culmination of Ghengis Khan's reconnaissance expedition into Russia of 1221. The consequences for the history of Europe were incalculable. The decisive Mongol victory over a combined Russian and Kipchaq army at the battle of the Kalka ...
Kalka River 1223: Ghengis Khan's Mongols Invade Russia
This book tells the fascinating story of the battle of the Kalka River, the culmination of Ghengis Khan's reconnaissance expedition into Russia of 1221. The consequences for the history of Europe were incalculable. The decisive Mongol victory over a combined Russian and Kipchaq army at the battle of the Kalka River opened up vast regions of Russia and Christian Eastern Europe to Mongol conquest. On orders from Ghengis himself the victorious Mongols returned eastwards, delaying the final cataclysm by a few years. However, the Russians were incapable of strengthening their defences enough to withstand the later attacks. As a result Russia fell under what historians call 'the Mongol yoke' for several centuries. In 1227 Ghengis died but the victory at the Kalka River was followed within 14 years by a Mongol invasion of Eastern Europe and even more disastrous defeats. Only the death of the Ogatai, son and successor of Ghengis, saved Europe from Mongol domination.
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20.950000 USD

Kalka River 1223: Ghengis Khan's Mongols Invade Russia

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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Of all the castles constructed by Western Europeans during the Middle Ages, none have caught the public imagination so much as Crusader castles. These structures, ranging from the very simple to the huge and elaborate, also encompass almost all aspects of Western European military architecture during the golden age of ...
Crusader Castles in the Holy Land 1097-1192
Of all the castles constructed by Western Europeans during the Middle Ages, none have caught the public imagination so much as Crusader castles. These structures, ranging from the very simple to the huge and elaborate, also encompass almost all aspects of Western European military architecture during the golden age of castle building from the 12th to the 13th centuries. This first volume in a series of three will focus on 12th century castles in the regions now known as Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and south-eastern Turkey. Later volumes will focus on 13th century castles in Greece, Cyprus and the Aegean.
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19.900000 USD

Crusader Castles in the Holy Land 1097-1192

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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The history of Poland is a fascinating study of a people struggling to achieve nationhood in the face of internal and external enemies. Poland became a unified Christian state in AD 966 and by the 12th century a knightly class had emerged - a force that was integral to the ...
Medieval Polish Armies 966-1500
The history of Poland is a fascinating study of a people struggling to achieve nationhood in the face of internal and external enemies. Poland became a unified Christian state in AD 966 and by the 12th century a knightly class had emerged - a force that was integral to the defense of Poland against increasingly frequent foreign invasions. Intent on crushing rival Christian states, the Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights all mounted attacks but were beaten back by the Poles, as were invading Mongols and Turks. This book reveals the organization, equipment and battle histories of the medieval Polish armies as they developed and modernized to emerge as one of the dominant powers of Eastern Europe.
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18.850000 USD

Medieval Polish Armies 966-1500

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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Charlemagne's army enabled him to create what he and his contemporaries regarded as a 'reborn' Western Roman Empire. Charlemagne revolutionised the organisation, logistics, indoctrination and training of his army. His troops seemed able to fight on indefinitely, even when they were thousands of miles away from Frankish territory. This title ...
Carolingian Cavalryman, 768-987 AD
Charlemagne's army enabled him to create what he and his contemporaries regarded as a 'reborn' Western Roman Empire. Charlemagne revolutionised the organisation, logistics, indoctrination and training of his army. His troops seemed able to fight on indefinitely, even when they were thousands of miles away from Frankish territory. This title explores the role of the cavalry, the essential striking force of Charlemagne's army. In many respects the cavalrymen were the fore-runners of medieval Western European knights, yet the author shows how their recruitment, organisation, armament and tactics were still rooted in the medieval past. This book shows how the Carolingian armoured horseman played an important role in the development of European warfare.
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19.900000 USD

Carolingian Cavalryman, 768-987 AD

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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As the Viking Age gave way to the Middle Ages the development of Scandinavian armies showed special local characteristics, due both to the rough terrain and the relatively 'egalitarian' nature of society. Though Denmark's proximity to Germany led to the appearance there of a kind of feudal system and some ...
Medieval Scandinavian Armies: Pt. 1: 1100-1300
As the Viking Age gave way to the Middle Ages the development of Scandinavian armies showed special local characteristics, due both to the rough terrain and the relatively 'egalitarian' nature of society. Though Denmark's proximity to Germany led to the appearance there of a kind of feudal system and some heavy armoured cavalry, in Sweden and Norway there was fairly willing co-operation between the few nobles and the many free farmers. This book shows how armies were of local infantry levies raised by 'democratic' methods to defend home territory. It also details how the crossbow became very important along with ambush tactics and winter campaigning, employing the use of sledges and skis.
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18.850000 USD

Medieval Scandinavian Armies: Pt. 1: 1100-1300

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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To many people the Crusades were the First Crusade. This first 'armed pilgrimage' to the Holy Land was, of course, the only Crusade that really succeeded. It resulted in the establishment of four so-called Crusader States in the Middle East and its repercussions can still be felt today. But in ...
The First Crusade 1096-99: Conquest of the Holy Land
To many people the Crusades were the First Crusade. This first 'armed pilgrimage' to the Holy Land was, of course, the only Crusade that really succeeded. It resulted in the establishment of four so-called Crusader States in the Middle East and its repercussions can still be felt today. But in addition to its historical significance, this book explores how the First Crusade saw several armies march right across Europe at a time when such a thing was virtually unheard of. It also struck the Islamic World at a moment when the latter was chronically divided and thus won a series of miraculous military victories, which would have been impossible a generation earlier and were never repeated afterwards.
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23.050000 USD

The First Crusade 1096-99: Conquest of the Holy Land

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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This is not just another retelling of the Fall of Constantinople, though it does include a very fine account of that momentous event. It is the history of a quite extraordinary century and a bit which began when a tiny of force of Ottoman Turkish warriors was invited by the ...
Cross and Crescent in the Balkans: The Ottoman Conquest of Southeastern Europe
This is not just another retelling of the Fall of Constantinople, though it does include a very fine account of that momentous event. It is the history of a quite extraordinary century and a bit which began when a tiny of force of Ottoman Turkish warriors was invited by the Christian Byzantine Emperor to cross the Dardanelles from Asia into Europe to assist him in one of the civil wars which were tearing the fast-declining Byzantine Empire apart. One hundred and eight years later the Byzantine capital of Constantinople fell to what was by then a hugely powerful and expanding empire of the Islamic Ottoman Turks, whose rulers came to see themselves as the natural and legitimate heirs of their Byzantine and indeed Roman predecessors. The book sets the scene, explains the background and tells the story, both military, political, cultural and personal, of the winners and the losers, plus those 'outsiders' who were increasingly being drawn into the dramatic story of the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
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42.66 USD

Cross and Crescent in the Balkans: The Ottoman Conquest of Southeastern Europe

by David Nicolle
Hardback
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This book presents as many aspects as possible of warfare during the period of the crusades within all the cultures most directly involved. To a large extent the current interest in the Crusades reflects the perceived threat of a so-called 'clash of civilisations'. While warnings of such a supposed clash ...
Crusader Warfare: v. 1: Byzantium, Western Europe and the Battle of the Holy Land
This book presents as many aspects as possible of warfare during the period of the crusades within all the cultures most directly involved. To a large extent the current interest in the Crusades reflects the perceived threat of a so-called 'clash of civilisations'. While warnings of such a supposed clash in our own times are based upon a misunderstanding of the natures of both 'Western' and 'Islamic' civilisations, some commentators have looked to the medieval Crusades as an earlier example of such a clash. In reality they were no such thing. Instead the Crusades resulted from a remarkable variety of political, economic, cultural and religious factors. The Crusades, even excluding the Northern or Baltic Crusades, also involved an extraordinary array of states, ruling dynasties, ethnic or linguistic groups and the fighting forces associated with these disparate participants. This volume focuses on Western Europe and the Byzantium Crusades. Latin or Catholic Europe certainly had an 'eastern front'. Medieval Europeans, and certainly the knightly class which came to bear the brunt of Crusading warfare, would have seen all these fronts as part of Latin Christendom's struggle against outsiders. The latter ranged from infidels to schismatics, to pagans and other 'enemies of God'. Excluding Crusading or Christian frontier warfare north of the Carpathian Mountains did not reflect any real military or even political factors on the Latin side of the 'front'. It is based upon which enemies were to be included and which excluded. This study looks at Christian and in a few cases pagan armies whose actions or mere existence in sub-Saharan Africa and Central Asia, had a bearing upon military, political and economic relations between Christendom and Islam within the Mediterranean world.
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63.000000 USD

Crusader Warfare: v. 1: Byzantium, Western Europe and the Battle of the Holy Land

by David Nicolle
Hardback
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In the centuries following the first expeditions down the great rivers of northern Russia by Viking traders and adventurers, the foundations for a new state were laid. Many influences combined in this colourful culture which grew up first around the great cities of Kiev and Novgorod - Scandinavian, Finnish, Slav, ...
Medieval Russian Armies, 838-1252
In the centuries following the first expeditions down the great rivers of northern Russia by Viking traders and adventurers, the foundations for a new state were laid. Many influences combined in this colourful culture which grew up first around the great cities of Kiev and Novgorod - Scandinavian, Finnish, Slav, steppe Turkish, Byzantine. By the time of the Mongol invasions of the 12th century the small enclaves of the old pagan Rus', tolerated by the Khazar Khans for their commercial usefulness, had evolved into a Christian nation. Its story is told here in fascinating detail, and illustrated with striking colour reconstructions of the warriors themselves.
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18.850000 USD

Medieval Russian Armies, 838-1252

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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In the early decades of the 8th century AD, Islamic forces were flooding into Europe through the Iberian peninsula, threatening Frankish and Burgundian territory and raiding it with ever-increasing ferocity. At the battle of Poitiers, also known as Tours, Christian forces under the Frankish leader Charles Martel The Hammer (grandfather ...
Poitiers AD 732: Charles Martel Turns the Islamic Tide
In the early decades of the 8th century AD, Islamic forces were flooding into Europe through the Iberian peninsula, threatening Frankish and Burgundian territory and raiding it with ever-increasing ferocity. At the battle of Poitiers, also known as Tours, Christian forces under the Frankish leader Charles Martel The Hammer (grandfather of Charlemagne) confronted a massive invading Islamic army. The Franks were victorious, effectively halting the northward advance of Islam and preserving Christianity as the dominant faith in Europe. Expert medievalist David Nicolle draws on contemporary sources to reconstruct this turning-point battle, places it in its historical context and reviews its background and immediate and longer-term historical consequences.
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23.050000 USD

Poitiers AD 732: Charles Martel Turns the Islamic Tide

by David Nicolle
Paperback
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After the Second Crusade in 1148 the Crusader States embarked on a period of caution and consolidation and, in an increasingly hostile environment, began strengthening existing fortifications and building new castles. Following on from Fortress 21 in the series, which looked at Crusader castles in the Holy Land from 1097 ...
Crusader Castles in Holy Land 1192-1302
After the Second Crusade in 1148 the Crusader States embarked on a period of caution and consolidation and, in an increasingly hostile environment, began strengthening existing fortifications and building new castles. Following on from Fortress 21 in the series, which looked at Crusader castles in the Holy Land from 1097 to 1192, this book takes the history of these military structures through to the early 14th century. David Nicolle examines the design and development of castles, the defensive strategies and construction methods used, the influence of Arabic and Islamic traditions in military architecture, as well as siege weaponry and everyday social and religious life. All this is placed within a historical context. Plans, maps, a timeline, photograhs and reconstruction drawings (by Adam Hook) are presented throughout. A tour of five examples (Margat, Crac des Chevaliers, Atlit, Caesarea Maritima and Arsuf), is also included.
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19.900000 USD
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