Engaging the private sector in addressing global development is not new. U.S. government agencies have worked in varying ways with private partners from the for-profit and nonprofit sectors and with civil-society organizations over the last 50 years. The range of engagement has included organized private-sector input to the U.S. government foreign-aid establishment through an advisory body functioning since the Truman era, as well as partnerships with companies and foundations to leverage private-sector resources and joint action toward reducing poverty and combating disease. Based on public documents and interviews with organizational representatives, this report provides snapshots of U.S. government organizations and their interaction with the private sector in international-development activities. It looks at some commonalities and distinctions and suggests opportunities for enhancing the effectiveness of such collaboration.