The development of modern biotechnology has varied considerably from country to country. Typically, there are wide technology gaps between developing and industrialised countries and considerable differences in investment and regulatory systems, often creating a need for policy intervention. This innovative book examines the development and evolution of biotechnology in industrialised and developing countries. The author first explores efforts made by policymakers and the leaders in the field to reduce technology gaps, and analyses the development of financial mechanisms and regulatory frameworks to hasten the adoption and diffusion of biotechnology. The second section looks at the relationship between biotechnology and its resource base, biological diversity. The author emphasizes the interdependency between biodiversity and biological R&D in an attempt to simplify the debate on the conservation of biological diversity. The last section focuses on the potential positive and negative impacts of biotechnology and its contribution towards sustaining biodiversity. The Emergence and Growth of Biotechnology will be of great interest to undergraduate and postgraduate economics students interested in the economics of technology, economic development and biotechnology and environmental conservation.