Self-organization is a generic term describing the capacity of a system to change its own structure by itself while interacting with the environment. In this sense, self-organization is not environment-determined or environment-adaptive, but is self-determined and self-adaptive. The concept of self-organization was born in the 1960s, and attempts were made to establish a theory based on the logic of a system and its control. In contrast, the 1980s introduced a view based on the logic of creative individuals and on fluctuations. Antithetical differences exist between the two. The former regards the system of aggregated individuals as the object of consideration, where self-organization is the sum of the practices of a system led by control, or self-control in particular. The latter focuses on the practices of individuals deviating from the logic of a system, making the existing system fluctuate and transforming its structure. This volume attempts to integrate these viewpoints through inquiry into the structure of the self and through self-reflexion. A new horizon thus opens for the synthesis of planning/control action theory and spontaneous/performative action theory.