Commercialization of successful SBIR awards is a key challenge for the program and represents an essential step in the programa (TM)s contribution to government missions. To better understand the challenges inherent in the conversion of promising research to useful products and processes, the National Research Council convened a conference focused on the commercialization of SBIR-funded innovations at DoD and NASA. A unique feature of the conference is that it brought together, for the first time, the program managers, small business leaders, and prime contractor personnel involved in commercializing the results of SBIR awards through procurement at DoD and NASA. These participants identified the challenges and highlighted existing and evolving best practices among successful cases in the third (or commercialization) phase of the SBIR program. The conference, captured in this report, contributed significantly to a better understanding of the obstacles and opportunities in this phase of the SBIR program and to legislation designed to address these challenges.