A century has already passed since FRIEDRICH MIESCHER, working at Strasbourg and Basel, began his study of protamine, one of the basic nuclear proteins of cells. It was first established by KOSSEL that protamine represents the simplest known protein. In the conviction that research into the nature of protamine would shed light on that of other typical proteins, a group of researchers in Germany followed MIESCHER and laid the foundations of protein chemistry. A general view of prot- amines was thus built up by KOSSEL, working at Strasbourg, Berlin, Marburg an der Lahn, and Heidelberg, FELIX at Heidelberg, Munich, and Frankfurt am Main, and WALDSCHMIDT-LEITZ at Prague and Munich. Concepts and techniques established by these studies have been widely utilized for research on other typical proteins. The revolutionary advances in chemical and physical techniques after W orId War II extended the sphere of research to Tokyo in the Far East. Prof. FELIX' visit in 1955 greatly encouraged our research group in Tokyo. His death in August 1960 constituted a sad loss to protein chemistry and stimulated our group to assume responsibility for carrying on the studies. In the following decade we in Tokyo have been able to add a new development to the results on the chemical structure of protamines accumulated by the Eurqpean researchers over a period of about fifty years.