A state-of-the-art presentation of the specific microbes that inhabit oil reservoirs, with an emphasis on the ecological significance of anaerobic microorganisms. * Considers the various beneficial and detrimental effects of bacteria and archaea indigenous to the oil field environment. * Provides fundamental and applied biological approaches, and serves as an invaluable reference source for petroleum engineers, remediation professionals, and field researchers. * Explores the impacts of microbial activities on the composition of crude oil and on petroleum production, as well as examining bacterial mechanisms involved in the biodegradation of hydrocarbons. * Presents chapters on fermentative, iron-reducing, and nitrate-reducing microorganisms; biodegradation of petroleum in subsurface geological reservoirs; microbial enhancement of oil recovery; petroleum upgrade through the use of biotechnology; and the microbiology of marine oil spill bioremediation. This title is published by the American Society for Microbiology Press and distributed by Taylor and Francis in rest of world territories.