The global importance of human rights issues has sparked an ongoing need to develop a universal language for human rights and the procedures for remedying violations, where remedies are, in fact, available. Giving the broadest scope to the terms human rights and freedoms, this reference encompasses constitutional rights and freedoms as well as those addressed in international and regional agreements. Through entries that define and describe concepts and terms, to text excerpts of documents, charts depicting global comparisons, essays on organizations, and biographies of activists and theorists, this reference will serve the research and information needs of students, scholars, activists, and interested citizens. As the title suggests, International Encyclopedia of Human Rights: Freedoms, Abuses, and Remedies goes beyond the abstract to include practical information on remedies for violations of a person's rights and freedoms by a national government, and on the private and government rights organizations that assist in reporting on or enforcing human rights. All around the world, there is a growing interest in developing a universal language for human rights and the procedures for remedying violations. International Encyclopedia of Human Rights: Freedoms, Abuses, and Remedies is written for both students of the subject and those who are actively working in the field. This reference work points readers in the right direction for enforcing their rights rather than merely setting them forth in the abstract.