In the early years of robotics and automated vehicles, the fight was against nature and not against a manifestly intelligent opponent. In military environments, however, where prediction and anticipation are complicated by the existence of an intelligent adversary, it is essential to retain human operators in the control loop. Future combat systems will require operators to control and monitor aerial and ground robotic systems and to act as part of larger teams coordinating diverse robotic systems over multiple echelons. The National Research Council organized a workshop to identify the most important human-related research and design issues from both the engineering and human factors perspectives, and develop a list of fruitful research directions. Interfaces for Ground and Air Military Robots summarizes the presentations and discussions from this workshop.