This series of studies provides answers to three broad questions -- To what extent does HIV/AIDS affect the health system in South Africa? , What aspects or subsystems are most affected? , and How will the impact progress over time? Health personnel and ambulatory and hospitalised patients across the nine provinces of South Africa were surveyed. Specific questions addressed issues such as loss of staff due to illness, absenteeism, low staff morale, and increased patient load. Taking into account the anticipated increase in patient load in the public and private sector health facilities in South Africa, the study makes recommendations not only for managing the HIV/AIDS case load, but also for the care and services provided to people with HIV/AIDS in South Africa.