This book focuses on two of the most cited figures in the debate on radical education - Antonio Gramsci and Paulo Freire. Both regarded forms of adult education as having an important role to play in the struggle for liberation from oppression. In this book Peter Mayo examines the extent to which their combined insights can provide the foundation for a theory for our own times of transformative adult education. He focuses on three aspects of the pedagogical process in particular -- social relations, sites of practice and the content of adult education. He analyses their ideas and identifies some of the limitations in their work, notably the critical issues of gender and race which they do not address. The book concludes with a seminal attempt at synthesising their ideas in the context of other adult educators' more recent contributions in order to develop a theory of transformative adult education, including an assessment of its feasibility in the era of globalization and neoliberalism.