This text offers an analysis of the linkages between trade policy and competition policy. It is a case study-based book that explores the conflicts and complementarities between these policy domains given different industry conditions and market structures. The essential argument is that as the complexity of markets and industry structures increases, the relationships between trade and competition grow in complexity also. The book attempts to classify these different industry conditions into four categories: natural resource, complex manufacturing, R+D intensive and internationally traded service industries. The book offers specific case studies in natural resource and complex manufacturing sectors. Given the proposals at the World Trade Organization concerning the internationalisation of antitrust policies, this text should serve as a useful guide to both academics and policymakers alike.