The demands on materials to perform under complex service conditions has necessitated rapid advances in the design and development of materials and associated technologies. Development of new concepts starting at the electronic structure of materials and their modeling require application of advanced computer tools and software. There has been significant progress, not only in the development of advanced materials, but also in understanding their constitution and behavior with the help of modeling. This book presents a comprehensive view of the latest developments and experimental work on both these fronts and attempts to give direction to future work. The information contained in this book deals with topics such as materials challenges in the nuclear power sector, materials science approaches in biology and medicine, Fe-and Co-based bulky glass alloys for magnetic applications, smart composites, multilayer semiconductor devices, atomic structure and interfaces, design of light alloys, superalloys, novel materials with optimized design at atomic scale, design tools for nano-and micro scale metallic materials, component design and industrial ecology, microstructural development of advanced ferritic steels, diamond/carbide nanocomposite gradient films, magnetic nanofluids, stability issues in nanostructured materials, the design of materials for enhanced tribological performance, solid oxide fuel cells, metal foams and high performance steels through nano-structures.