The interlinked issues of air pollution and energy policies in an enlarged Europe are currently subjects of major interest in economic, environmental, geography and regional sciences. This interest is understandable given the considerable consequences on human health and on climate change issues at not only a European, but a global level. In addition, the recent effects of economic fluctuation and oil prices as well as the actual restructuring of the European energy supply and security market raise a great deal of policy challenges. These issues have become an increasingly relevant concern, as the optimal design of policy by centralised European institutions has come under greater scrutiny. This book presents an integrated approach to recent regulations on air pollution with particular emphasis on transborder air pollution, climate change and energy policies in the new Europe. This integrated vision embraces the extent to which global pollution influences policy decisions at different institutional levels; the magnitude, by virtue of policy simulation analysis, of environmental policy tools (i.e. environmental taxes) on aggregate welfare and transboundary air emissions fluxes in light of the recent enlargement process; the European Trading System and its flexible mechanisms to curb carbon emissions and fulfil the European Union Kyoto Protocol's commitments; and the developments of the new European energy strategy and its interdependencies across energy requirements, innovation, competitiveness and climate change. The book is primarily aimed at Postgraduates and Postdoctoral research students in economics, environmental economics, environmental sciences, or environmental policy disciplines. However, it should also be of interest to environmental economists, energy policy analysts, members of governmental and non-governmental agencies dealing with environmental policy, climate change or air pollution.