This major synoptic work explores some of the most important questions facing humanity in the coming generations. It is remarkable for its author`s holistic treatment of the environment and social justice as inescapably related questions; his refusal to analyze the industrialized and developing countries as though they are so different that any understanding of the one can ignore the other; and his integrity in exploring difficult and controversial questions from a stance that always addresses the evidence, even if that leads to conclusions that are not currently fashionable. Saral Sarkar argues that the USSR bumped up against environmentally defined and resource-related limits to growth at a relatively early stage. But this does not mean that a free market, globalized capitalist economy will indefinitely escape a similar fate. Nor will a modified `eco-capitalism`, as promoted by some sections of the Western environmental movement, provide a sufficiently grounded solution to the twin problems of environmental destruction and social injustice. The author looks, therefore, to a fundamentally different future - one in which our very notion of progress is differently conceived.