The main purpose of this book is the need to create awareness amongst public in regard to the DNA fingerprinting technology, its applications and implications. This book deals with several applications of DNA fingerprinting, from parental disputes to familial matters, forensics to medicine, smuggling to poaching of animals, man-made to natural disasters, conservation to reproduction, and so on. It contains several cases where DNA-evidence played an important role in arriving at the verdict. Many of these cases from India were referred to the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB). As far as these cases are concerned, they are representative of various types of disputes; cases of similar nature are reported all around the world. Some of the cases have been chosen because of their historic perspective, high-profile status (social or political) of personalities involved, or because they were publicized internationally. The book illustrates how DNA fingerprinting was crucial under the variety of these circumstances in providing justice to the victim or in unraveling the truth behind ongoing conflicts or confusions. Legal and ethical concerns which have emerged due to the application of DNA fingerprinting have been addressed in the concluding chapters.