This meeting report provides a synopsis of the conference Play, Attention, and Learning: How Do Play and Timing Shape the Development of Attention and Facilitate Classroom Learning?, held on June 15, 2012 and presented by the New York Academy of Sciences and the Brain Trauma Foundation. The report outlines important research steps that need to be taken in order to address critical questions about play, human activity, and cognitive functions. This meeting report presents a summary of the conference Treatment-Resistant Depression: Glutamate, Stress Hormones, and their Roles in the Regeneration of Neurons, held on March 25, 2013 at the New York Academy of Sciences. The report discusses how treatment with NMDA receptor antagonists and magnesium have shown the ability to sprout new synaptic connections and reverse stress-induced neural changes, opening up promising new territory for the development of drugs to meet the unmet need in patients with clinical depression. Also included in this Annals volume is a scholarly review on carbohydrate recognition in the immune system and contributions of neoglycolipid-based microarrays to carbohydrate ligand discovery --Academy website.