To ensure access to affordable medicines, particularly in developing countries, is one of the great challenges faced by the international community.At the 2001 Doha Ministerial Conference, the groundbreaking Declaration on the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement and Public Health was adopted. In its aftermath, new legal instruments were developed both at WTO and EC level. While the focus at the WTO lay on how countries with insufficient or no manufacturing capacity for pharmaceuticals could make effective use of compulsory licensing, the EC adopted a regulation to promote differential pricing for needed medicines. The authoress focuses on these responses developed under the TRIPS Agreement and in the EC. The book provides a comprehensive analysis of the new legal instruments and highlights contrasts and interlinkages between the pursued strategies.