In this unique and timely volume, Scott Shane systematically explains the formation of university spinoff companies and their role in the commercialization of university technology and wealth creation in the United States and elsewhere. The importance of university spinoff activity is discussed and the historical development of university spinoff ventures is traced over time. Scott Shane provides in-depth analysis of the four major factors that jointly influence spinoff activity: the university and societal environment, the technology developed at universities, the industries in which spinoffs operate, and the people involved. He documents the process of company creation, focusing on the formation of spinoffs, the transformation of the spinoff's technology into new products and services, the identification and exploitation of a market for these new products and services and the acquisition of financial resources. Also detailed are the factors that enhance and inhibit the performance of university spinoffs, as well as the effect that they have on the institutions that spawn them. Authoritative and highly readable, this volume will appeal to scholars researching the spinoff phenomenon, university technology transfer officers, inventors, policymakers, external entrepreneurs and investors.