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In the decade and a half since the publication of the Second Edition of A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology , there have been many important advances in the field, including spinning rotor gauges, dry mechanical pumps, magnetically levitated turbo pumps, and ultraclean system designs. These, along with improved cleaning ...
User's Guide to Vacuum Technology, 3rd Edition
In the decade and a half since the publication of the Second Edition of A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology , there have been many important advances in the field, including spinning rotor gauges, dry mechanical pumps, magnetically levitated turbo pumps, and ultraclean system designs. These, along with improved cleaning and assembly techniques have made contamination-free manufacturing a reality. Designed to bridge the gap in both knowledge and training between designers and end users of vacuum equipment, the Third Edition offers a practical perspective on today's vacuum technology. With a focus on the operation, understanding, and selection of equipment for industrial processes used in semiconductor, optics, packaging, and related coating technologies, A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology, Third Edition provides a detailed treatment of this important field. While emphasizing the fundamentals and touching on significant topics not adequately covered elsewhere, the text avoids topics not relevant to the typical user.
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Treating absorption and scattering in equal measure, this self-contained, interdisciplinary study examines and illustrates how small particles absorb and scatter light. The authors emphasize that any discussion of the optical behavior of small particles is inseparable from a full understanding of the optical behavior of the parent material-bulk matter. To ...
Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles
Treating absorption and scattering in equal measure, this self-contained, interdisciplinary study examines and illustrates how small particles absorb and scatter light. The authors emphasize that any discussion of the optical behavior of small particles is inseparable from a full understanding of the optical behavior of the parent material-bulk matter. To divorce one concept from the other is to render any study on scattering theory seriously incomplete.Special features and important topics covered in this book include: classical theories of optical properties based on idealized models; measurements for three representative materials: magnesium oxide, aluminum, and water; an extensive discussion of electromagnetic theory; numerous exact and approximate solutions to various scattering problems; examples and applications from physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, and biophysics; some 500 references emphasizing work done since Kerker's 1969 work on scattering theory; and, computer programs for calculating scattering by spheres, coated spheres, and infinite cylinders.
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This is an introductory to intermediate level text on the science of image processing, which employs the Matlab programming language to illustrate some of the elementary, key concepts in modern image processing and pattern recognition. The approach taken is essentially practical and the book offers a framework within which the ...
Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing: A Practical Approach with Examples in Matlab
This is an introductory to intermediate level text on the science of image processing, which employs the Matlab programming language to illustrate some of the elementary, key concepts in modern image processing and pattern recognition. The approach taken is essentially practical and the book offers a framework within which the concepts can be understood by a series of well chosen examples, exercises and computer experiments, drawing on specific examples from within science, medicine and engineering. Clearly divided into eleven distinct chapters, the book begins with a fast-start introduction to image processing to enhance the accessibility of later topics. Subsequent chapters offer increasingly advanced discussion of topics involving more challenging concepts, with the final chapter looking at the application of automated image classification (with Matlab examples) . Matlab is frequently used in the book as a tool for demonstrations, conducting experiments and for solving problems, as it is both ideally suited to this role and is widely available. Prior experience of Matlab is not required and those without access to Matlab can still benefit from the independent presentation of topics and numerous examples. Features a companion website www.wiley.com/go/solomon/fundamentals containing a Matlab fast-start primer, further exercises, examples, instructor resources and accessibility to all files corresponding to the examples and exercises within the book itself. Includes numerous examples, graded exercises and computer experiments to support both students and instructors alike.
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A century after Henri Benard discovered cellular convective structures, thermal convection in fluid layers still remains a central subject in nonlinear physics. Within this framework, surface-tension-driven instabilities have increasingly been the subject of attention over the last few years, owing to the even greater variety of pattern and wave-forming phenomena ...
Nonlinear Dynamics of Surface-Tension-Driven Instabilities: With a Foreword by I. Prigogine
A century after Henri Benard discovered cellular convective structures, thermal convection in fluid layers still remains a central subject in nonlinear physics. Within this framework, surface-tension-driven instabilities have increasingly been the subject of attention over the last few years, owing to the even greater variety of pattern and wave-forming phenomena observed in this situation. This book provides readers with a progressive and complete insight into this vast field, describing as it does a number of 'first principle' analyses of realistic set-ups, including several physicochemical processes at interfaces.Nonetheless, much emphasis is placed on the generality of the results and methods used, by way of the detailed derivation and analysis of a number of generic nonlinear equations known to hold in many physical systems, even outside the realm of fluid mechanics. The first introductory chapter describes nonlinear dissipative structures at a general level, with several examples of hydrodynamic instabilities in systems with interfaces. Chapter 2 contains a summary of the derivation of thermo-hydrodynamic equations, including boundary conditions prevailing at interfaces, while the third chapter is devoted to linear stability analyzes and identification of basic instability modes.The following two chapters deal with weakly nonlinear theories, both monotonic and oscillatory. Chapter 6 presents experimental and theoretical results on solitonic and shock-like surface waves, while Chapter 7 explores examples of multiple bifurcations. Finally, Chapter 8 presents recent results on strongly nonlinear surface-tension-driven convection and chaotic interfacial dynamics.
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Written by an experienced physicist who is active in applying computer algebra to relativistic astrophysics and education, this is the resource for mathematical methods in physics using MapleTM and MathematicaTM. Through in-depth problems from core courses in the physics curriculum, the author guides students to apply analytical and numerical techniques ...
Physics with MAPLE: The Computer Algebra Resource for Mathematical Methods in Physics
Written by an experienced physicist who is active in applying computer algebra to relativistic astrophysics and education, this is the resource for mathematical methods in physics using MapleTM and MathematicaTM. Through in-depth problems from core courses in the physics curriculum, the author guides students to apply analytical and numerical techniques in mathematical physics, and present the results in interactive graphics. Around 180 simulating exercises are included to facilitate learning by examples. This book is a must-have for students of physics, electrical and mechanical engineering, materialsscientists, lecturers in physics, and university libraries. * Free online MapleTM material athttp: //www.wiley-vch.de/templates/pdf/maplephysics.zip* Free online MathematicaTM material athttp: //www.wiley-vch.de/templates/pdf/physicswithmathematica.zip* Solutions manual for lecturers available at www.wiley-vch.de/supplements/
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This is a comprehensive textbook and reference for the study of the physics of ionized gases. The intent of this book is to provide deep physical insight into the behavior of gases containing atoms and molecules from which one or more electrons have been ionized. The study of these so-called ...
Physics of Ionized Gases
This is a comprehensive textbook and reference for the study of the physics of ionized gases. The intent of this book is to provide deep physical insight into the behavior of gases containing atoms and molecules from which one or more electrons have been ionized. The study of these so-called plasmas begins with an overview of plasmas as they are found in nature and created in the laboratory. This serves as a prelude to a comprehensive study of plasmas, beginning with low temperature and ideal plasmas and extending to radiation and particle transport phenomena, the response of plasmas to external fields, and an insightful treatment of plasma waves, plasma instabilities, nonlinear phenomena in plasmas, and the study of plasma interactions with surfaces.In all cases, the emphasis is on a clear and unified understanding of the basic physics that underlies all plasma phenomena. Thus, there are chapters on plasma behavior from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular physics, as well as on the macroscopic phenomena involved in physical kinetics of plasmas and the transport of radiation and of charged particles within plasmas. With this grounding in the fundamental physics of plasmas, the notoriously difficult subjects of nonlinear phenomena and of instabilities in plasmas are then treated with comprehensive clarity.
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This is a unique 'how-to' manual for the management of scientific laboratories. This book presents a complete set of tools for the management of research and development laboratories and projects. With an emphasis on knowledge rather than profit as a measure of output and performance, the authors apply standard management ...
Managing Science: Management for R and D Laboratories
This is a unique 'how-to' manual for the management of scientific laboratories. This book presents a complete set of tools for the management of research and development laboratories and projects. With an emphasis on knowledge rather than profit as a measure of output and performance, the authors apply standard management principles and techniques to the needs of high-flux, open-ended, separately funded science and technology enterprises. They also propose the novel idea that failure, and incipient failure, is an important measure of an organization's potential.From the management of complex, round-the-clock, high-tech operations to strategies for long-term planning, Managing Science: Management for R&D Laboratories discusses how to build projects with the proper research and development, obtain and account for funding, and deal with rapidly changing technologies, facilities, and trends. The entire second part of the book is devoted to personnel issues and the impact of workplace behavior on the various functions of a knowledge-based organization. Drawing on four decades of involvement with the management of scientific laboratories, the authors thoroughly illustrate their philosophy with real-world examples from the physics field and provide tables and charts. Managers of scientific laboratories as well as scientists and engineers expecting to move into management will find Managing Science: Management for R&D Laboratories an invaluable practical guide.
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Managing Science: Management for R and D Laboratories

by Christian Roche, Mel Month, Gilles Lindecker, Claude Geles
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In recent years the generation of optical harmonics in molecular systems has become an area of increasing interest for a number of reasons. First, many organic crystals and polymeric solids prove not only to have usefully large optical nonlinearities but also to be surprisingly robust and thermally stable. Consequently the ...
Optical Harmonics in Molecular Systems: Quantum Electrodynamical Theory
In recent years the generation of optical harmonics in molecular systems has become an area of increasing interest for a number of reasons. First, many organic crystals and polymeric solids prove not only to have usefully large optical nonlinearities but also to be surprisingly robust and thermally stable. Consequently the fabrication of organic materials for laser frequency conversion has become very much a growth area. At interfaces and in partially ordered systems, harmonic generation is now of considerable scientific interest through the detailed structural information it affords. And in molecular gases and liquids, processes of optical harmonic conversion present a powerful tool for the study of both static and dynamic effects of molecular orientation. Where the detailed nonlinear optical response of molecules is required, the application of molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) brings both rigour and conceptual facility. Using this approach the authors address topics of direct experimental concern in a general formulation of theory for optical harmonics, with a particular focus on quantum optical and molecular aspects. A detailed basis is provided for the applications, enabling the characteristic features of optical nonlinearity to be examined in general terms. A great many of the optical phenomena subsequently addressed find wide application in nonlinear optics and chemical physics. Specifically, the book deals with coherent harmonic generation, both within and at interfaces between different media. It addresses elastic second harmonic (Hyper-Rayleigh) light scattering as well as the inelastic case normally referred to as Hyper-Raman scattering. Full and detailed tables and results are provided for the analysis of experimental observations.
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This book provides a comprehensive, unified treatment of present-day nuclear physics in the fresh edition of a classic text/reference. 'A fine and thoroughly up-to-date textbook on nuclear physics ...most welcome' - Physics Today (on the First Edition). What sets Introductory Nuclear Physics apart from other books on the subject is ...
Introductory Nuclear Physics
This book provides a comprehensive, unified treatment of present-day nuclear physics in the fresh edition of a classic text/reference. 'A fine and thoroughly up-to-date textbook on nuclear physics ...most welcome' - Physics Today (on the First Edition). What sets Introductory Nuclear Physics apart from other books on the subject is its presentation of nuclear physics as an integral part of modern physics. Placing the discipline within a broad historical and scientific context, it makes important connections to other fields such as elementary particle physics and astrophysics. Now fully revised and updated, this Second Edition explores the changing directions in nuclear physics, emphasizing new developments and current research - from super deformation to quark-gluon plasma.Author Samuel S.M. Wong preserves those areas that established the First Edition as a standard text in university physics departments, focusing on what is exciting about the discipline and providing a concise, thorough, and accessible treatment of the fundamental aspects of nuclear properties. In this new edition, Professor Wong: includes a chapter on heavy-ion reactions - from high-spin states to quark-gluon plasma; adds a new chapter on nuclear astrophysics; relates observed nuclear properties to the underlying nuclear interaction and the symmetry principles governing subatomic particles; regroups material and appendices to make the text easier to use; lists Internet links to essential databases and research projects; and, features end-of-chapter exercises using real-world data. Introductory Nuclear Physics, Second Edition is an ideal text for courses in nuclear physics at the senior undergraduate or first-year graduate level. It is also an important resource for scientists and engineers working with nuclei, for astrophysicists and particle physicists, and for anyone wishing to learn more about trends in the field.
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This Encyclopedia provides the basic principles and in-depth coverage of all technically pertinent areas of modern-day physics, coupled with technological applications from real life. The print edition filled 25 volumes, containing some 15,500 pages and over 650 articles with a total of 7,800 figures and 980 tables. Now Wiley InterScience ...
Encyclopedia of Applied Physics
This Encyclopedia provides the basic principles and in-depth coverage of all technically pertinent areas of modern-day physics, coupled with technological applications from real life. The print edition filled 25 volumes, containing some 15,500 pages and over 650 articles with a total of 7,800 figures and 980 tables. Now Wiley InterScience brings you the online edition. Some of the numerous features include: new material on recent topics of applied physics; annual updates of at least 10 percent new or revised articles; keyword search in the full text of all volumes; and, all references cross-linked.The key subject areas of The Digital Encyclopedia of Applied Physics are basics, methods and applications in physics as well as all the neighboring fields of physics and engineering. It thus comprehensively covers optics, laser physics, solid state and semiconductor physics, atom and nuclear physics, and biophysics. Thanks to its clear structure, users can easily access targeted information and quickly research the areas by way of the comprehensive reference section. The highlights of this encyclopedia include: a detailed table of contents for quick access to desired information; a glossary of unfamiliar terms; references providing an introduction to the literature of the field; suggestions for further reading; and, uniform terms, abbreviations, symbols and units. The Digital Encyclopedia of Applied Physics is your quick reference in modern physics!
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This book presents a new approach to understanding nonlinear dynamics and strange attractors. The behavior of a physical system may appear irregular or chaotic even when it is completely deterministic and predictable for short periods of time into the future. How does one model the dynamics of a system operating ...
The Topology of Chaos: Alice in Stretch and Squeezeland
This book presents a new approach to understanding nonlinear dynamics and strange attractors. The behavior of a physical system may appear irregular or chaotic even when it is completely deterministic and predictable for short periods of time into the future. How does one model the dynamics of a system operating in a chaotic regime? Older tools such as estimates of the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents and estimates of the spectrum of fractal dimensions do not sufficiently answer this question. In a significant evolution of the field of nonlinear dynamics, The Topology of Chaos responds to the fundamental challenge of chaotic systems by introducing a new analysis method - Topological Analysis - which can be used to extract, from chaotic data, the topological signatures that determine the stretching and squeezing mechanisms which act on flows in phase space and are responsible for generating chaotic data.Beginning with an example of a laser that has been operated under conditions in which it behaved chaotically, the authors convey the methodology of topological analysis through detailed chapters on: Discrete Dynamical Systems: Maps; Continuous Dynamical Systems: Flows; Topological Invariants; Branched Manifolds; The Topological Analysis Program; Fold Mechanisms; Tearing Mechanisms; Unfoldings; Symmetry; Flows in Higher Dimensions; and, A Program for Dynamical Systems Theory. Suitable at the present time for analyzing 'strange attractors' that can be embedded in three-dimensional spaces, this groundbreaking approach offers researchers and practitioners in the discipline a complete and satisfying resolution to the fundamental questions of chaotic systems.
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Carbon based pi-conjugated materials offer a broad range of applications, going from molecular electronics and single molecule devices to nanotechnology, plastic electronics and optoelectronics. The proper physical description of such materials is in between that of molecular solids and that of low-dimensional covalent semiconductors. This book is a comprehensive review ...
Photophysics of Molecular Materials: From Single Molecules to Single Crystals
Carbon based pi-conjugated materials offer a broad range of applications, going from molecular electronics and single molecule devices to nanotechnology, plastic electronics and optoelectronics. The proper physical description of such materials is in between that of molecular solids and that of low-dimensional covalent semiconductors. This book is a comprehensive review of their elementary excitations processes and dynamics, which merges the two viewpoints, sometimes very different if not contrasting. In each chapter, a broad tutorial introduction provides a solid physical background to the topic, which is further discussed based on recent experimental results obtained via state-of-the-art techniques. Both the molecular, intra-chain character and the solid state, inter-molecular physics is addressed.Reports on single molecule and single polymer chain spectroscopy introduce the on-site phenomena. Several chapters are dedicated to nano-probes, steady state and transient spectroscopies. The highly ordered state, occurring in single crystals, is also discussed thoroughly. Finally, less conventional tools such as THz spectroscopy are discussed in detail. The book provides a useful introduction to the field for newcomers, and a valid reference for experienced researchers in the field.
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Biophysical Bone Behaviour: Principles and Applications is the culmination of efforts to relate the biophysical phenomena in bone to bone growth and electrical behavior. Behari develops a bridge between physics and biology of bone leading to its clinical applications, primarily electro stimulations in fracture healing and osteoporosis. The book is ...
Biophysical Bone Behaviour: Principles and Applications
Biophysical Bone Behaviour: Principles and Applications is the culmination of efforts to relate the biophysical phenomena in bone to bone growth and electrical behavior. Behari develops a bridge between physics and biology of bone leading to its clinical applications, primarily electro stimulations in fracture healing and osteoporosis. The book is based upon authors own research work and his review articles in the area, and updated with the latest research results. The first book dedicated to biophysical bone behavior Develops the relationship between the biophysics and biology of bone into an integral unit Spans basic biophysical studies and clinical applications Links the various topics together to give readers a holistic understanding of the area Presents all major research findings about bone and biophysics Readers can access the full list of references at the companion website: www.wiley.com/go/behari
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The Sciences, 4th Edition integrates major concepts from physics, chemistry, astronomy, earth sciences, and biology to help anyone become science-literate. Even readers with little or no science background will find this unique book an indispensable guide to understanding the latest headlines, controversies, and scientific developments. The new edition keeps pace ...
The Sciences: an Integrated Approach, Fourth Editi on Website
The Sciences, 4th Edition integrates major concepts from physics, chemistry, astronomy, earth sciences, and biology to help anyone become science-literate. Even readers with little or no science background will find this unique book an indispensable guide to understanding the latest headlines, controversies, and scientific developments. The new edition keeps pace with the dynamic nature of the sciences by incorporating the most up-to-date discoveries in all five disciplines. Design to be used alongside Trefil: The Sciences, 4E, this Study Guide contains many elements that foster student success. Included are chapter reviews, learning objectives, key chapter concepts and key concept charts. The ties between science and math are reinforced with key formulas and equations. Links to scientists and their findings are outlined to help improve your comprehension of key subject area concepts.
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A first on ultrafast phenomena in carbon nanostructures like graphene, the most promising candidate for revolutionizing information technology and communicationThe book introduces the reader into the ultrafast nanoworld of graphene and carbon nanotubes, including their microscopic tracks and unique optical finger prints. The author reviews the recent progress in this ...
Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes: Ultrafast Optics and Relaxation Dynamics
A first on ultrafast phenomena in carbon nanostructures like graphene, the most promising candidate for revolutionizing information technology and communicationThe book introduces the reader into the ultrafast nanoworld of graphene and carbon nanotubes, including their microscopic tracks and unique optical finger prints. The author reviews the recent progress in this field by combining theoretical and experimental achievements. He offers a clear theoretical foundation by presenting transparently derived equations. Recent experimental breakthroughs are reviewed. By combining both theory and experiment as well as main results and detailed theoretical derivations, the book turns into an inevitable source for a wider audience from graduate students to researchers in physics, materials science, and electrical engineering who work on optoelectronic devices, renewable energies, or in the semiconductor industry.
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Photoemission is one of the principal techniques for the characterization and investigation of condensed matter systems. The field has experienced many developments in recent years, which may also be put down to important achievements in closely related areas. This timely and up-to-date handbook is written by experts in the field ...
Solid-State Photoemission and Related Methods: Theory and Experiment
Photoemission is one of the principal techniques for the characterization and investigation of condensed matter systems. The field has experienced many developments in recent years, which may also be put down to important achievements in closely related areas. This timely and up-to-date handbook is written by experts in the field who provide the background needed by both experimentalists and theorists. It represents an interesting framework for showing the connection between theory and experiment by bringing together different concepts in the investigation of the properties of materials. The work addresses the geometric and electronic structure of solid surfaces and interfaces, theoretical methods for direct computation of spectra, experimental techniques for data acquisition, and physical models for direct data interpretation. It also includes such recent developments as full hemisphere acceptance in photoemission, two-electron photoemission, (e, 2e) electron diffraction, and photoelectron-electron/hole interaction.
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Our knowledge of the environment of the nucleus of our galaxy has been greatly enhanced, by more extensive and sensitive observations at radio and infrared wavelengths, the advent of high resolution x-ray imaging and spectroscopy, and considerable theoretical activity to understand the nucleus and its components, and their activity. The ...
Proceedings of the Galactic Center Workshop 2002, Astronomische Nachrichten Supplementary Issue 1/2003: The Central 300 Parsecs of the Milky Way
Our knowledge of the environment of the nucleus of our galaxy has been greatly enhanced, by more extensive and sensitive observations at radio and infrared wavelengths, the advent of high resolution x-ray imaging and spectroscopy, and considerable theoretical activity to understand the nucleus and its components, and their activity. The Galactic Center Workshop 2002 was organized to review recent research on the galactic center, including the latest state-of-the-art observations and important theoretical developments. The workshop covered phenomena on scales ranging from the central several hundred parsecs to the central parsec and within. Each topic was approached from both multi-wavelength observational and theoretical perspectives.
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