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The words presented in the epigraph are particularly true today. This slogan is sensible for us to do so in science, in particular in the area of New Materials and applications of biomaterials for common uses. We, the editors of this volume, have carried out a selection and seemingly have ...
Recent Advances in Research on Biodegradable Polymers & Sustainable Composites: Volume 3
The words presented in the epigraph are particularly true today. This slogan is sensible for us to do so in science, in particular in the area of New Materials and applications of biomaterials for common uses. We, the editors of this volume, have carried out a selection and seemingly have chosen enough of good reviews and unique works in the branch of biodegradable polymers and sustainable composites. These works were presented during the 1st International Conference on Biodegradable Polymers and Sustainable Composites held in Alicante (October 2007).The use of conventional polymeric packaging materials obtained from non-renewable sources represents an important environmental impact and waste generation after their use. Biopolymers have received an increased interest lately due to more environmentally aware consumers, increased price of crude oil and global warming. These polymers are naturally occurring polymers that are found in all living organisms and they fulfil all the environmental concerns (renewable raw materials and relatively good biodegradability). As a result their use will have a less negative effect on our environment compared to petroleum based materials, but they show some limitations in terms of performance (thermal resistance, barrier and mechanical properties) as well as associated costs. Apparently, these works are at the front edge of science and will be of interest for high readership of scientists and students in the branch of chemistry and physics of polymers and composites.
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154.880000 USD
Hardback
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Apply an Omnibus of Knowledge from Leaders in the Field The unexpected diversity of topics presented at previous gatherings forced organizers of 2008's 22nd Conference on Catalysis of Organic Reactions to expand its format to reflect the remarkable current degree of specialization in the field. Catalysis of Organic Reactions contains ...
Catalysis of Organic Reactions: Twenty-second Conference
Apply an Omnibus of Knowledge from Leaders in the Field The unexpected diversity of topics presented at previous gatherings forced organizers of 2008's 22nd Conference on Catalysis of Organic Reactions to expand its format to reflect the remarkable current degree of specialization in the field. Catalysis of Organic Reactions contains a compilation of papers presented at the event, and subsequently, few books will be able to match the breadth and depth of its content. Featuring papers by respected scientists from academia, industry, and the governmental research-and-development sector, it covers various aspects of the production, sale, and use of catalysts for practical purposes. Articles concentrate on the general area of catalyzed synthesis, emphasizing the production of organic chemicals. With a focus on application rather than theory, the dominant theme is the traditionally practiced area of heterogeneous catalysis. Topics include: Hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis C-C coupling Amination and oxidation (including the precious metal, supported base metal, and sponge metal, Raney process, and homogeneous catalyst types) End uses of products, including industrial petrochemicals, fine chemicals, and pharma intermediates Those working with applied catalysis will benefit greatly from this consolidation of insights and reviews of the latest developments in the field. Each of the papers presented were edited by ORCS members, drawn from both academia and industry, and peer-reviewed by experts in related fields of study.
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142.90 USD
Hardback
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Omega-3s, trans-fats, polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid - research facts about fatty acids and their relationship to heart disease and atherosclerosis, obesity, cancer, and neurological disorders abound. Chemical names appear on every nutrition label. But, just what do these terms mean in health and disease? The Fats of Life delineates ...
The Fats of Life: Essential Fatty Acids in Health and Disease
Omega-3s, trans-fats, polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid - research facts about fatty acids and their relationship to heart disease and atherosclerosis, obesity, cancer, and neurological disorders abound. Chemical names appear on every nutrition label. But, just what do these terms mean in health and disease? The Fats of Life delineates the importance of essential fatty acids, with a focus on distinctions between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid variants. The chemical and biochemical characteristics of these fatty acids and their metabolism to a vast array of potent bioactive messengers are described in the context of their potential effects on general health and impact on various diseases and neurological disorders. Glen D. Lawrence addresses in detail the capacity for polyunsaturated fatty acids to influence asthma, atherosclerosis, heart disease, inflammation, cancer, and immunity. Lawrence makes clear that our understanding of the biochemical and physiological effects of dietary fats has advanced tremendously as a result of careful research, but he also stresses that this knowledge has not easily translated into sound dietary recommendations.
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56.94 USD
Hardback
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This handbook supplies the one-stop reference for everything readers need to know about green chemistry. Edited by Paul Anastas, the inventor of the twelve principles of green chemistry, the work covers topics like solvents and separations. With top international expert contributors, it presents the essential set of innovative scientific solutions ...
Green Processes: 3 Volume Set
This handbook supplies the one-stop reference for everything readers need to know about green chemistry. Edited by Paul Anastas, the inventor of the twelve principles of green chemistry, the work covers topics like solvents and separations. With top international expert contributors, it presents the essential set of innovative scientific solutions to real-world environmental situations. The Handbook of Green Chemistry comprises of 9 volumes in total, split into 3 subject-specific sets. The three sets are available individually. All 9 volumes are available individually, too. Set I: Green Catalysis - Volume 1: Homogeneous Catalysis - Volume 2: Heterogeneous Catalysis - Volume 3: Biocatalysis Set II: Green Solvents - Volume 4: Supercritical Solvents - Volume 5: Reactions in Water - Volume 6: Ionic Liquids Set III: Green Processes - Volume 7: Green Synthesis - Volume 8: Green Nanoscience - Volume 9: Designing Safer Chemicals The Handbook of Green Chemistry is also available as Online Edition. Podcasts Listen to two podcasts in which Professor Paul Anastas and Journals Editor Paul Trevorrow discuss the origin and expansion of Green Chemistry and give an overview of The Handbook of Green Chemistry.
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480.40 USD

Green Processes: 3 Volume Set

by Adelina Voutchkova-Kostal, Robert Boethling, Mauricio Selva, Alvise Perosa, Chao-Jun Li, Paul T. Anastas
Hardback
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Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in the future power supply that will transform to renewable, decentralized and fluctuating primary energies. At the same time the share of electric power will continually increase at the expense of thermal and mechanical energy not just in transportation, but also ...
Fuel Cell Science and Engineering: Materials, Processes, Systems and Technology 2 Volume Set
Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in the future power supply that will transform to renewable, decentralized and fluctuating primary energies. At the same time the share of electric power will continually increase at the expense of thermal and mechanical energy not just in transportation, but also in households. Hydrogen as a perfect fuel for fuel cells and an outstanding and efficient means of bulk storage for renewable energy will spearhead this development together with fuel cells. Moreover, small fuel cells hold great potential for portable devices such as gadgets and medical applications such as pacemakers. This handbook will explore specific fuel cells within and beyond the mainstream development and focuses on materials and production processes for both SOFC and lowtemperature fuel cells, analytics and diagnostics for fuel cells, modeling and simulation as well as balance of plant design and components. As fuel cells are getting increasingly sophisticated and industrially developed the issues of quality assurance and methodology of development are included in this handbook. The contributions to this book come from an international panel of experts from academia, industry, institutions and government. This handbook is oriented toward people looking for detailed information on specific fuel cell types, their materials, production processes, modeling and analytics. Overview information on the contrary on mainstream fuel cells and applications are provided in the book 'Hydrogen and Fuel Cells', published in 2010.
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263.35 USD
Hardback
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The reference work Science of Synthesis: Catalytic Transformations via C-H Activation covers the state of the art in C-H activation chemistry. Experts in the field present the best synthetic methods including typical or general experimental procedures. As such, this two volume set can serve as both a basis for the ...
Science of Synthesis: Catalytic Transformations via C-H Activation Vol. 1
The reference work Science of Synthesis: Catalytic Transformations via C-H Activation covers the state of the art in C-H activation chemistry. Experts in the field present the best synthetic methods including typical or general experimental procedures. As such, this two volume set can serve as both a basis for the practical application of the techniques discussed, and as an educational resource to lay the foundations for future research. Volume 1 concerns the formation of C-C bonds by both arene and hetarene C-H activation. For the arenes the material is subdivided into arylation (using palladium(0), palladium(II)/palladium(IV), palladium(II), and ruthenium(II) catalysts), vinylation (using various palladium and ruthenium(III) catalysts), and alkylation (using various metal catalysts in combination with either functionalized alkanes or alkenes). For the hetarenes, the related coupling strategies are covered as a single topic using a variety of metal catalysts and coupling partners.
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Hardback
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When a crime or other incident takes place, clothing items are often present or left behind, and can become directly involved in the case itself. Items of clothing are thus one of the most common types of exhibit examined in court. They can provide valuable information in cases of violent ...
Scientific Protocols for Forensic Examination of Clothing
When a crime or other incident takes place, clothing items are often present or left behind, and can become directly involved in the case itself. Items of clothing are thus one of the most common types of exhibit examined in court. They can provide valuable information in cases of violent crimes, such as homicide or rape, as well as in burglary, robbery, arson, and vehicular accidents. A unique reference in the forensic arena The first of its kind, Scientific Protocols for Forensic Examination of Clothing discusses the forensic examination of clothing in criminal cases. It examines the ramifications of DNA profiling and its effect on the screening approach to clothing examination. Coverage includes protocols and procedures, preliminary assessment, examination, testing and sampling, quality assurance and control, and the significance of results. Applicable to a myriad of readers Suitable for a wide range of readers, this book is designed for examiners trying to decide how to approach a clothing examination, those looking for more information on a specific topic, laboratory quality assurance officers in need of a reliable reference, as well as attorneys, investigators, archaeologists, and curators. Expert authors Author Jane Moira Taupin has testified as a forensic expert more than 130 times. Chesterene Cwiklik is a founder of the Pacific Coast Forensic Science Institute. Their expertise makes this a valuable resource for all those who examine clothing items and interpret subsequent findings.
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168.000000 USD
Hardback
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Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In ...
Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications
Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characterization and applications of hydroxyapatite to provide timely information for active researchers and newcomers alike. In eight carefully reviewed chapters, hydroxyapatite experts from the United States, Japan, Singapore, and China present the latest on topics ranging from deposition processes to biomedical applications in implants and drug delivery. This book discusses: Magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition The modification of hydroxyapatite properties by sol-gel deposition to incorporate other elements found in natural bones, such as zinc, magnesium, and fluorine The use of pure hydroxyapatite in drug delivery applications The growth or self-assembly of hydroxyapatite on shape memory alloy Hydroxyapatite composite coatings-with carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide (TiO2), and others-on the titanium alloy Offering valuable insights and a wealth of data, including numerous tables and figures, this is a rich source of information for research on hydroxyapatite coatings. Each chapter also covers material that provides an accessible stepping stone for those who are new to the field.
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141.88 USD
Hardback
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Volume 56 opens with a discussion on silica particles surface-modified by polyfunctional fragments containing acidic amino groups, specified for biomedical applications. Approaches to the immobilisation/surface assembly of oligonucleotides on the surface of silica nanoparticles to create hybrid organic-inorganic particles are also considered. Following this, the authors investigate antituberculous compounds: isoniD ...
Advances in Chemistry Research: Volume 56
Volume 56 opens with a discussion on silica particles surface-modified by polyfunctional fragments containing acidic amino groups, specified for biomedical applications. Approaches to the immobilisation/surface assembly of oligonucleotides on the surface of silica nanoparticles to create hybrid organic-inorganic particles are also considered. Following this, the authors investigate antituberculous compounds: isoniD Degreeszid, pyrazinamid, salinazid, vanilin isoniazid and their bioactive structural analog, p-aminobenzoic acid. The solubility of drug substances a key parameter concerning formulation development in the pharmaceutical industry. The results of the application of the inversed Kirkwood-Buff integrals method to aqueous mixtures of many organic solvents as well as non-aqueous mixtures of such solvents are presented. Comparison with another method that yields similar information, the quasi-lattice quasi-chemical method, is made. The authors discuss the most common component of water scale, calcium carbonate, the solubility of which falls with increasing temperature. Precipitated CaCO3 may be a mixture of crystalline phases, amorphous and hydrated phases. The crystalline phases are calcite, aragonite and vaterite. Additionally, the authors provide a comprehensive review of several isolation techniques and analytical aspects for the quantitative determination of catechin. In the concluding review, the effects of magnetic field on liquid/solid inhomogeneous reaction in aqueous solution (ie: metal deposition reaction and chemical garden reaction) are briefly discussed in terms of the magnetic force on paramagnetic Cu2+ ion and the Lorentz force on all ions.
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427.71 USD
Hardback
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Professors and research advisors have always endeavored to make the opportunity to gain new knowledge available to their students. However, new knowledge takes different forms. From a student perspective, it comes from reading textbooks and primary literature or attending classes and seminars. Professors share in these activities with their students, ...
Developing and Maintaining a Successful Undergraduate Research Program
Professors and research advisors have always endeavored to make the opportunity to gain new knowledge available to their students. However, new knowledge takes different forms. From a student perspective, it comes from reading textbooks and primary literature or attending classes and seminars. Professors share in these activities with their students, but they know that physically taking part in the acquisition of new knowledge through active research is where the true excitement begins. For many, if not all, faculty members research is the source of passion for chemistry, and sharing it with a rising generation of chemists often comprises a substantial part of the decision to pursue a career in the field of undergraduate education. These chapters and additional ones provide starting points for developing such a culture at the department level. In several cases the starting point is redesigning introductory or research methods courses to place a stronger emphasis on authentic research and its associated skills. In other cases the establishment of a thriving research group by one faculty member is the catalyst for initiating the departmental transformation. There are also several examples of how to set up an undergraduate research group in departments that place a heavy emphasis on research, and those that place less emphasis on research. Many of these offer roadmaps for developing interdisciplinary research groups or translating resource-intensive graduate-level research to an environment that is resource-restrictive. In still other cases the research has an experiential learning component. For many of the above examples the departmental/institutional role is not always obvious and may not be influential or important. This is a reminder that undergraduate research need not be institutional to be successful.
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110.60 USD
Hardback
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Tools of Chemistry Education Research meets the current need for information on more in-depth resources for those interested in doing chemistry education research. Renowned chemists Diane M. Bunce and Renee S. Cole present this volume as a continuation of the dialogue started in their previous work, Nuts and Bolts of ...
Tools of Chemistry Education Research
Tools of Chemistry Education Research meets the current need for information on more in-depth resources for those interested in doing chemistry education research. Renowned chemists Diane M. Bunce and Renee S. Cole present this volume as a continuation of the dialogue started in their previous work, Nuts and Bolts of Chemical Education Research. With both volumes, new and experienced researchers will now have a place to start as they consider new research projects in chemistry education. Tools of Chemistry Education Research brings together a group of talented researchers to share their insights and expertise with the broader community. The volume features the contributions of both early career and more established chemistry education researchers, so as to promote the growth and expansion of chemistry education. Drawing on the expertise and insights of junior faculty and more experienced researchers, each author offers unique insights that promise to benefit other practitioners in chemistry education research.
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189.000000 USD
Hardback
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Ecotoxicology and Chemistry Applications in Environmental Management describes how to set up an integrated, holistic approach to addressing ecotoxicological problems. It provides detailed explanations in answer to questions like Why is it necessary to apply an integrated approach? and How does one apply an integrated environmental management approach? Highlighted topics ...
Ecotoxicology and Chemistry Applications in Environmental Management
Ecotoxicology and Chemistry Applications in Environmental Management describes how to set up an integrated, holistic approach to addressing ecotoxicological problems. It provides detailed explanations in answer to questions like Why is it necessary to apply an integrated approach? and How does one apply an integrated environmental management approach? Highlighted topics of the book include Environmental chemical calculations QSAR estimation methods Toxic substance interference with other environmental problems Using diagnostic ecological subdisciplines for solutions Cleaner production methods and technologies Environmental risk assessment Addressing one of the most difficult tasks today, this book provides a much-needed holistic view for translating scientific knowledge and research results into effective environmental management measures. Rooted in a seven-step method, it integrates examination and quantification of an environmental problem and describes the use of ecological diagnostic tools to develop a diagnosis for ecosystem health. It also presents methods for choosing and using solutions or combinations of solutions to tackle problems.
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178.500000 USD
Hardback
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This informative volume discusses recent advancements in the research and development in synthesis, characterization, processing, morphology, structure, and properties of advanced polymeric materials. With contributions from leading international researchers and professors in academic, government and industrial institutions, Advanced Polymeric Materials for Sustainability and Innovations has a special focus on eco-friendly ...
Advanced Polymeric Materials for Sustainability and Innovations
This informative volume discusses recent advancements in the research and development in synthesis, characterization, processing, morphology, structure, and properties of advanced polymeric materials. With contributions from leading international researchers and professors in academic, government and industrial institutions, Advanced Polymeric Materials for Sustainability and Innovations has a special focus on eco-friendly polymers, polymer composites, nanocomposites, and blends and materials for traditional and renewable energy. In this book the relationship between processing-morphology-property applications of polymeric materials is well established. Recent advances in the synthesis of new functional monomers has shown strong potential in generating better property polymers from renewable resources. Fundamental advances in the field of nanocomposite blends and nanostructured polymeric materials in automotive, civil, biomedical and packaging/coating applications are the highlights of this book.
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167.950000 USD
Hardback
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New innovations are needed for the invention of more efficient, affordable, sustainable and renewable energy systems, as well as for the mitigation of climate change and global environmental issues. In response to a fast-growing interest in the realm of renewable energy, Renewable Energy Systems: Efficiency, Innovation and Sustainability identifies a ...
Renewable Energy Systems from Biomass: Efficiency, Innovation and Sustainability
New innovations are needed for the invention of more efficient, affordable, sustainable and renewable energy systems, as well as for the mitigation of climate change and global environmental issues. In response to a fast-growing interest in the realm of renewable energy, Renewable Energy Systems: Efficiency, Innovation and Sustainability identifies a need to synthesize relevant and up-to-date information in a single volume. This book describes a systems approach to renewable energy, including technological, political, economic, social and environmental viewpoints, as well as policies and benefits. This unique and concise text, encompassing all aspects of the field in a single source, focuses on truly promising innovative and affordable renewable energy systems. Key Features: Focuses on innovations in renewable energy systems that are affordable and sustainable Collates the most relevant and up-to-date information on renewable energy systems, in a single and unique volume Discusses lifecycle assessment, cost and availability of systems Emphasizes bio-related topics Provides a systems approach to the renewable energy technologies and discusses technological, political, economic, social, and environmental viewpoints as well as policies
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278.95 USD

Renewable Energy Systems from Biomass: Efficiency, Innovation and Sustainability

by Anawar Hossain, Vladimir Strezov
Hardback
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International Tables for Crystallography is the definitive resource and reference work for crystallography and structural science. Now in nine volumes, each of the volumes in the series contains articles and tables of data relevant to crystallographic research and to applications of crystallographic methods in all sciences concerned with the structure ...
International Tables for Crystallography: 9 Volume Set
International Tables for Crystallography is the definitive resource and reference work for crystallography and structural science. Now in nine volumes, each of the volumes in the series contains articles and tables of data relevant to crystallographic research and to applications of crystallographic methods in all sciences concerned with the structure and properties of materials. Emphasis is given to symmetry, diffraction methods and techniques of crystal-structure determination, and the physical and chemical properties of crystals. The data are accompanied by discussions of theory, practical explanations and examples, all of which are useful for teaching. The contents can be browsed by volume, across the 9 volumes below: Volume A: Space-group symmetry, 6e Volume A1: Symmetry relations between space groups, 2e Volume B: Reciprocal space, 3e Volume C: Mathematical, physical and chemical tables, 3e Volume D: Physical properties of crystals, 2e Volume E: Subperiodic groups, 2e Volume F: Crystallography of biological macromolecules, 2e Volume G: Definition and exchange of crystallographic data Volume H: Powder Diffraction Also available online as an updating reference representing the most up-to-date, dynamic, and comprehensive reference work available to crystallographers, and to all those who use crystallography across a wide range of fields.
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2887.500000 USD
Hardback
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This book focuses on the nanofiber membrane's fabrication, characterization, and performance for medical, environment and energy applications. Topics include polymer, inorganic and composite-form nanofiber membrane materials. Top Research teams from varied disciplines and continents outline applied nanofiber membrane fabrication techniques and characterizations. Promising nanofiber membranes for improving and enhancing technologies ...
Nanofiber Membranes for Medical, Environmental, and Energy Applications
This book focuses on the nanofiber membrane's fabrication, characterization, and performance for medical, environment and energy applications. Topics include polymer, inorganic and composite-form nanofiber membrane materials. Top Research teams from varied disciplines and continents outline applied nanofiber membrane fabrication techniques and characterizations. Promising nanofiber membranes for improving and enhancing technologies used in drug delivery, wound healing, tissue engineering, water and wastewater treatment and purification, gas separation and purification, air purification, and fuel cells are discussed along with the likely path forward for commercial usage. Key Features: Shares the most recent discovery solutions from experts all over the globe for the numerous problems in medical, environmental and energy applications. Provides a holistic cycle of nanofiber membrane development which comprehensively discusses the membrane preparation, characterizations, performance and the way forward for a specific process and application. Explains the mechanism of separation and purification. Focuses on the nanofiber membrane's fabrication, characterizations, and performance in various scenarios and commercial applications.
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241.76 USD

Nanofiber Membranes for Medical, Environmental, and Energy Applications

Hardback
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3. 4. 2. SOMETHING ON CERIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
Episodes from the History of the Rare Earth Elements
3. 4. 2. SOMETHING ON CERIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3. 4. 3. THE DISCOVERY OF LANTHANUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3. 4. 4. THE DISCOVERY OF DIDYMIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3. 4. 5. THE NAME DIDYMIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3. 4. 6. THE DISCOVERY OF TERBIUM AND ERBIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3. 5. The Cork Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3. 6. Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3. 7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Chapter 4. THE 50 YEARS FOLLOWING MOSANDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 F. SZABADVARY and C. EVANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4. 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4. 2. The Terbium Dispute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4. 3. Samarium and Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 4. 4. The Division of Erbium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 4. 5. Separating the Twins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 4. 6. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 4. 7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Chapter 5. ELEMENTS NO. 70, 71 AND 72: DISCOVERIES AND CONTROVERSIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 HELGE KRAGH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 5. 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 5. 2. The ytterbium earths unti11905 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 5. 3. Auer von Welsbach: aldebaranium and cassiopeium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 5. 4. Urbain: neo-ytterbium and lutecium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 5. 5. The ytterbium controversy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 5. 6. Celtium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 5. 7. Hafnium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 5. 8. New light on old elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 5. 9. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 5. 10. Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 5. 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Chapter 6. THE SEARCH FOR ELEMENT 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 JACOB A. MARlNSKY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 6. 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 6. 2. Separations and Identifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 6. 3. Discovery Confirmed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 6. 4. Announcing, Claiming and 'Naming Element 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 6. 5. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 vii PART II - APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Chapter 7. CARL AUER VON WELSBACH A PIONEER IN THE INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION OF RARE EAR THS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 E. BAUMGARTNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Offering a different, more engaging approach to teaching and learning, Organic Chemistry: A Mechanistic Approach classifies organic chemistry according to mechanism rather than by functional group. The book elicits an understanding of the material, by means of problem solving, instead of purely requiring memorization. The text enables a deep understanding ...
Organic Chemistry: A Mechanistic Approach
Offering a different, more engaging approach to teaching and learning, Organic Chemistry: A Mechanistic Approach classifies organic chemistry according to mechanism rather than by functional group. The book elicits an understanding of the material, by means of problem solving, instead of purely requiring memorization. The text enables a deep understanding of underlying principles that can be applied to a wide range of problems and systems. It also teaches a way of thinking and analysis that will serve students well across many academic disciplines. Covering all the key aspects of organic chemistry, this text emphasizes the development of skills through a student-centered approach. In order to provide a contemporary feel to the subject, the author has included some of the more modern synthetic approaches. In addition, later chapters address the biological, environmental, industrial, and forensic aspects of organic chemistry. Pedagogical Features: Extensive review problems, which are the central means of integrating the material Focus boxes that highlight key points in the chapters An instructors' website with full lecture notes in animated PowerPoint, a solutions manual in both Word and PowerPoint format, and additional problems for use in tests A student website with solutions to review problems, and additional challenging problems and solutions for the ambitious, in animated PowerPoint and text versions
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Due to increasing demand for potable and irrigation water, water suppliers have to use alternative resources. They either have to regenerate wastewater or deal with contaminated surface water. This book brings together the experiences of various experts in preparing of innovative materials that are selective for arsenic and chromium removal, ...
Innovative Materials and Methods for Water Treatment: Solutions for Arsenic and Chromium Removal
Due to increasing demand for potable and irrigation water, water suppliers have to use alternative resources. They either have to regenerate wastewater or deal with contaminated surface water. This book brings together the experiences of various experts in preparing of innovative materials that are selective for arsenic and chromium removal, and inventing some innovative processes to extract these elements from water. The book should be of high interest to engineers and decision-makers responsible for production and delivery of safe water. The book is divided into three parts. The first one shows the effect of arsenic and chromium ions on living organisms. The second one presents the studies on preparation of innovative materials with improved affinity towards arsenic as well as chromium. The third part shows the innovative methods for removal of these toxic elements, with special attention paid to chromatographic, membrane, and hybrid systems. The book is the first ever scientific work addressed to two most harmful elements appearing in water and provides a comprehensive review of materials and methods useful for making the water safe. The book discusses in detail the various fabrication techniques for sorbents and membranes that are now commercially available or appear in the development stage and will be commercialized in the next decades. Some of the technologies described in the third part will be implemented at the industrial scale in the future as well.
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