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Scientific advances over the past several decades have accelerated the ability to engineer existing organisms and to potentially create novel ones not found in nature. Synthetic biology, which collectively refers to concepts, approaches, and tools that enable the modification or creation of biological organisms, is being pursued overwhelmingly for beneficial ...
Biodefense in the Age of Synthetic Biology
Scientific advances over the past several decades have accelerated the ability to engineer existing organisms and to potentially create novel ones not found in nature. Synthetic biology, which collectively refers to concepts, approaches, and tools that enable the modification or creation of biological organisms, is being pursued overwhelmingly for beneficial purposes ranging from reducing the burden of disease to improving agricultural yields to remediating pollution. Although the contributions synthetic biology can make in these and other areas hold great promise, it is also possible to imagine malicious uses that could threaten U.S. citizens and military personnel. Making informed decisions about how to address such concerns requires a realistic assessment of the capabilities that could be misused. Biodefense in the Age of Synthetic Biology explores and envisions potential misuses of synthetic biology. This report develops a framework to guide an assessment of the security concerns related to advances in synthetic biology, assesses the levels of concern warranted for such advances, and identifies options that could help mitigate those concerns.
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81.900000 USD

Biodefense in the Age of Synthetic Biology

by Committee on Strategies for Identifying and Addressing Potential Biodefense Vulnerabilities Posed by Synthetic Biology, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Board on Life Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Paperback / softback
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Many developing countries are exploring whether biotechnology has a role in addressing national issues such as food security and environmental remediation, and are considering whether the putative benefits of the technology-for example, enabling greater agricultural productivity and stability in the food supply-outweigh concerns that the technology might pose a danger-to ...
Global Challenges and Directions for Agricultural Biotechnology: Workshop Report
Many developing countries are exploring whether biotechnology has a role in addressing national issues such as food security and environmental remediation, and are considering whether the putative benefits of the technology-for example, enabling greater agricultural productivity and stability in the food supply-outweigh concerns that the technology might pose a danger-to biodiversity, health, and local jobs. Some policy leaders worry that their governments are not prepared to take control of this evolving technology and that introducing it into society would be a risky act. Others have suggested that taking no action carries more risk, given the dire need to produce more food. This book reports on an international workshop held to address these issues. Global Challenges and Directions for Agricultural Biotechnology: Mapping the Course, organized by the National Research Council on October 24-25, 2004, in Washington, DC, focused on the potential applications of biotechnology and what developing countries might consider as they contemplate adopting biotechnology. Presenters at the workshop described applications of biotechnology that are already proving their utility in both developing and developed countries.
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14.23 USD

Global Challenges and Directions for Agricultural Biotechnology: Workshop Report

by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Steering Committee on Global Challenges and Directions for Agricultural Biotechnology: Mapping the Course
Paperback / softback
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Museums catalogue our knowledge of the Earth's biodiversity, and their collections represent many decades of work by experts. Access to DNA sequence information in archival specimens would greatly extend knowledge of the genetic relationships within our biosphere. However, molecular genetic analysis of museum specimens has been slowed by the usual ...
Path to Effective Recovering of DNA from Formalin-Fixed Biological Samples in Natural History Collections: Workshop Summary
Museums catalogue our knowledge of the Earth's biodiversity, and their collections represent many decades of work by experts. Access to DNA sequence information in archival specimens would greatly extend knowledge of the genetic relationships within our biosphere. However, molecular genetic analysis of museum specimens has been slowed by the usual practice of fixation and storage of samples in formalin. Formalin is an environmental toxin and induces genetic and chromosomal alterations to the samples. Few of the many attempts to obtain and sequence DNA from formalin-fixed specimens stored in aqueous formalin or ethanol have been successful. All of the protocols are slow, difficult, and often expensive, and few produce DNA fragments longer than 500 base pairs. Path to Effective Recovering of DNA from Formalin-Fixed Biological Samples in Natural History Collections examines past attempts on DNA recovery from formalin-preserved biological specimens and discusses the research needed to advance the development of similar but more efficient and cost-effective protocols.
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14.23 USD

Path to Effective Recovering of DNA from Formalin-Fixed Biological Samples in Natural History Collections: Workshop Summary

by Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Academy of Sciences, Board on Life Sciences, National Research Council
Paperback / softback
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This book explores the risks and benefits of crops that are genetically modified for pest resistance, the urgency of establishing an appropriate regulatory framework for these products, and the importance of public understanding of the issues. The committee critically reviews federal policies toward transgenic products, the 1986 coordinated framework among ...
Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation
This book explores the risks and benefits of crops that are genetically modified for pest resistance, the urgency of establishing an appropriate regulatory framework for these products, and the importance of public understanding of the issues. The committee critically reviews federal policies toward transgenic products, the 1986 coordinated framework among the key federal agencies in the field, and rules proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency for regulation of plant pesticides. This book provides detailed analyses of: Mechanisms and results of genetic engineering compared to conventional breeding for pest resistance. Review of scientific issues associated with transgenic pest-protected plants, such as allergenicity, impact on nontarget plants, evolution of the pest species, and other concerns. Overview of regulatory framework and its use of scientific information with suggestions for improvements.
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31.33 USD

Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation

by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Committee on Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants
Hardback
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During July 10-13, 2011, 68 participants from 32 countries gathered in Istanbul, Turkey for a workshop organized by the United States National Research Council on Anticipating Biosecurity Challenges of the Global Expansion of High-containment Biological Laboratories. The United States Department of State's Biosecurity Engagement Program sponsored the workshop, which was ...
Biosecurity Challenges of the Global Expansion of High-Containment Biological Laboratories: Summary of a Workshop
During July 10-13, 2011, 68 participants from 32 countries gathered in Istanbul, Turkey for a workshop organized by the United States National Research Council on Anticipating Biosecurity Challenges of the Global Expansion of High-containment Biological Laboratories. The United States Department of State's Biosecurity Engagement Program sponsored the workshop, which was held in partnership with the Turkish Academy of Sciences. The international workshop examined biosafety and biosecurity issues related to the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of high-containment biological laboratories- equivalent to United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention biological safety level 3 or 4 labs. Although these laboratories are needed to characterize highly dangerous human and animal pathogens, assist in disease surveillance, and produce vaccines, they are complex systems with inherent risks. Biosecurity Challenges of the Global Expansion of High-Containment Biological Laboratories summarizes the workshop discussion, which included the following topics: Technological options to meet diagnostic, research, and other goals; Laboratory construction and commissioning; Operational maintenance to provide sustainable capabilities, safety, and security; and Measures for encouraging a culture of responsible conduct. Workshop attendees described the history and current challenges they face in their individual laboratories. Speakers recounted steps they were taking to improve safety and security, from running training programs to implementing a variety of personnel reliability measures. Many also spoke about physical security, access controls, and monitoring pathogen inventories. Workshop participants also identified tensions in the field and suggested possible areas for action.
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34.22 USD

Biosecurity Challenges of the Global Expansion of High-Containment Biological Laboratories: Summary of a Workshop

by National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Policy and Global Affairs, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Committee on International Security and Arms Control, Board on Life Sciences, Committee on Anticipating Biosecurity Challenges of the Global Expansion of High-Containment Biological Laboratories
Paperback / softback
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During the last decade, national and international scientific organizations have become increasingly engaged in considering how to respond to the biosecurity implications of developments in the life sciences and in assessing trends in science and technology (S&T) relevant to biological and chemical weapons nonproliferation. The latest example is an international ...
Life Sciences and Related Fields: Trends Relevant to the Biological Weapons Convention
During the last decade, national and international scientific organizations have become increasingly engaged in considering how to respond to the biosecurity implications of developments in the life sciences and in assessing trends in science and technology (S&T) relevant to biological and chemical weapons nonproliferation. The latest example is an international workshop, Trends in Science and Technology Relevant to the Biological Weapons Convention, held October 31 - November 3, 2010 at the Institute of Biophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing. Life Sciences and Related Fields summarizes the workshop, plenary, and breakout discussion sessions held during this convention. Given the immense diversity of current research and development, the report is only able to provide an overview of the areas of science and technology the committee believes are potentially relevant to the future of the Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention (BWC), although there is an effort to identify areas that seemed particularly ripe for further exploration and analysis. The report offers findings and conclusions organized around three fundamental and frequently cited trends in S&T that affect the scope and operation of the convention: The rapid pace of change in the life sciences and related fields; The increasing diffusion of life sciences research capacity and its applications, both internationally and beyond traditional research institutions; and The extent to which additional scientific and technical disciplines beyond biology are increasingly involved in life sciences research. The report does not make recommendations about policy options to respond to the implications of the identified trends. The choice of such responses rests with the 164 States Parties to the Convention, who must take into account multiple factors beyond the project's focus on the state of the science.
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USD

Life Sciences and Related Fields: Trends Relevant to the Biological Weapons Convention

by National Research Council, International Union of Microbiological Sciences, International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, International Union of Microbiological Societies, IAP - The Global Network of Science Academies, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Committee on Trends in Science and Technology Relevant to the Biological Weapons Convention: An International Workshop
Paperback / softback
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Genetically engineered (GE) crops were first introduced commercially in the 1990s. After two decades of production, some groups and individuals remain critical of the technology based on their concerns about possible adverse effects on human health, the environment, and ethical considerations. At the same time, others are concerned that the ...
Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects
Genetically engineered (GE) crops were first introduced commercially in the 1990s. After two decades of production, some groups and individuals remain critical of the technology based on their concerns about possible adverse effects on human health, the environment, and ethical considerations. At the same time, others are concerned that the technology is not reaching its potential to improve human health and the environment because of stringent regulations and reduced public funding to develop products offering more benefits to society. While the debate about these and other questions related to the genetic engineering techniques of the first 20 years goes on, emerging genetic-engineering technologies are adding new complexities to the conversation. Genetically Engineered Crops builds on previous related Academies reports published between 1987 and 2010 by undertaking a retrospective examination of the purported positive and adverse effects of GE crops and to anticipate what emerging genetic-engineering technologies hold for the future. This report indicates where there are uncertainties about the economic, agronomic, health, safety, or other impacts of GE crops and food, and makes recommendations to fill gaps in safety assessments, increase regulatory clarity, and improve innovations in and access to GE technology.
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93.450000 USD

Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects

by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources
Paperback / softback
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Potential benefits from the use of genetically modified organisms--such as bacteria that biodegrade environmental pollutants--are enormous. To minimize the risks of releasing such organisms into the environment, regulators are working to develop rational safeguards. This volume provides a comprehensive examination of the issues surrounding testing these organisms in the laboratory ...
Field Testing Genetically Modified Organisms: Framework for Decisions
Potential benefits from the use of genetically modified organisms--such as bacteria that biodegrade environmental pollutants--are enormous. To minimize the risks of releasing such organisms into the environment, regulators are working to develop rational safeguards. This volume provides a comprehensive examination of the issues surrounding testing these organisms in the laboratory or the field and a practical framework for making decisions about organism release. Beginning with a discussion of classical versus molecular techniques for genetic alteration, the volume is divided into major sections for plants and microorganisms and covers the characteristics of altered organisms, past experience with releases, and such specific issues as whether plant introductions could promote weediness. The executive summary presents major conclusions and outlines the recommended decision-making framework.
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USD

Field Testing Genetically Modified Organisms: Framework for Decisions

by National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Commission on Life Sciences, Committee on Scientific Evaluation of the Introduction of Genetically Modified Microorganisms and Plants into the Environment
Paperback / softback
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This 2-day workshop is the culmination of a study of the status and future of marine biotechnology. The overall goal of this workshop is to examine what was initially called Opportunities for Marine Biotechnology in the United States, to consider where we are now in this field of Environmental Marine ...
Opportunities for Environmental Applications of Marine Biotechnology: Proceedings of the October 5-6, 1999, Workshop
This 2-day workshop is the culmination of a study of the status and future of marine biotechnology. The overall goal of this workshop is to examine what was initially called Opportunities for Marine Biotechnology in the United States, to consider where we are now in this field of Environmental Marine Biotechnology, to envision the field in the future, and to discuss any impediments that might be encountered along the way. Opportunities for Environmental Applications of Marine Biotechnology: Proceedings of the October 5-6, 1999, Workshop addresses the question of where the federal government should invest its limited funds and what future initiatives should be planned.
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27.56 USD

Opportunities for Environmental Applications of Marine Biotechnology: Proceedings of the October 5-6, 1999, Workshop

by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Commission on Life Sciences, Ocean Studies Board, Board on Biology
Paperback / softback
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After discussions with the National Cancer Institute and the Department of Energy the Board on Biology of the National Research Council agreed to run a workshop under the auspices of its Forum on Biotechnology entitled Privacy Issues in Biomedical and Clinical Research on November 1, 1997. The organizers want to ...
Privacy Issues in Biomedical and Clinical Research
After discussions with the National Cancer Institute and the Department of Energy the Board on Biology of the National Research Council agreed to run a workshop under the auspices of its Forum on Biotechnology entitled Privacy Issues in Biomedical and Clinical Research on November 1, 1997. The organizers want to stress the forum was not intended to cover the full gauntlet of issues concerning Genomics and the Privacy of Medical Records. The emphasis of this forum was to look at pending legislation in Congress (Fall, 1997) and consider, if enacted as written, how this would affect genetic research. The broad language of this legislation written to protect the individual could inadvertently restrict research intended to help these same individuals. Scientific progress requires the sharing of information for the validation of results and the dissemination of gained knowledge to be effective. Other issues which were touched upon in this forum but not fully explored include; the trust of individuals involved in genetic studies in the manner their genetic information could be used, the practice of the generalized linking of particular ethnic groups with specific genetic traits, and the potential for positive and negative impact on the quality of life by having knowledge of one's genetic potential. These and other issues which have come upon us in the age of genomics require separate, focused efforts to explore their potential effect on society.
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22.77 USD

Privacy Issues in Biomedical and Clinical Research

by National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Commission on Life Sciences, Board on Biology
Paperback / softback
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Congress requested that the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) produce a site-specific biosafety and biosecurity risk assessment (SSRA) of the proposed National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF) in Manhattan, Kansas. The laboratory would study dangerous foreign animal diseases -- including the highly contagious foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which affects cattle, ...
Evaluation of a Site-Specific Risk Assessment for the Department of Homeland Security's Planned National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas
Congress requested that the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) produce a site-specific biosafety and biosecurity risk assessment (SSRA) of the proposed National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF) in Manhattan, Kansas. The laboratory would study dangerous foreign animal diseases -- including the highly contagious foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which affects cattle, pigs, deer, and other cloven-hoofed animals -- and diseases deadly to humans that can be transmitted between animals and people. Congress also asked the Research Council to review the validity and adequacy of the document. Until these studies are complete, Congress has withheld funds to build the NBAF. Upon review of the DHS assessment, the National Research Council found several major shortcomings. Based on the DHS risk assessment, there is nearly a 70 percent chance over the 50-year lifetime of the facility that a release of FMD could result in an infection outside the laboratory, impacting the economy by estimates of $9 billion to $50 billion. The present Research Council report says the risks and costs of a pathogen being accidently released from the facility could be significantly higher. The committee found that the SSRA has many legitimate conclusions, but it was concerned that the assessment does not fully account for how a Biosafety-Level 3 Agriculture and Biosafety-Level 4 Pathogen facility would operate or how pathogens might be accidently released. In particular, the SSRA does not include important operation risks and mitigation issues, such as the risk associated with the daily cleaning of large animal rooms. It also fails to address risks that would likely increase the chances of an FMD leak or of the disease's spread after a leak, including the NBAF's close proximity to the Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine clinics and KSU football stadium or personnel moving among KSU facilities.
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USD

Evaluation of a Site-Specific Risk Assessment for the Department of Homeland Security's Planned National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas

by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Board on Life Sciences, Committee on the Evaluation of a Site-Specific Risk Assessment for the Department of Homeland Security's Planned National Bio-and Agro-Defense Facility
Paperback / softback
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In 2005, the National Academies released the report Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, which offered a common set of ethical standards for a field that, due to the absence of comprehensive federal funding, was lacking national standards for research. In order to keep the Guidelines up to date, ...
2008 Amendments to the National Academies' Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research
In 2005, the National Academies released the report Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, which offered a common set of ethical standards for a field that, due to the absence of comprehensive federal funding, was lacking national standards for research. In order to keep the Guidelines up to date, given the rapid pace of scientific developments in the field of stem cell research, the Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Advisory Committee was established in 2006 with support from The Ellison Medical Foundation, The Greenwall Foundation, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. As it did in 2007, the Committee identified issues that warranted revision, and this book addresses those issues in a second set of amendments. Most importantly, this book addresses new scientific developments in reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency by adding a new section and revising other relevant sections of the Guidelines.
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14.23 USD

2008 Amendments to the National Academies' Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research

by National Academies, Institute of Medicine, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Board on Life Sciences, Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Advisory Committee
Paperback / softback
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Genetic-based animal biotechnology has produced new food and pharmaceutical products and promises many more advances to benefit humankind. These exciting prospects are accompanied by considerable unease, however, about matters such as safety and ethics. This book identifies science-based and policy-related concerns about animal biotechnologya key issues that must be resolved ...
Animal Biotechnology: Science Based Concerns
Genetic-based animal biotechnology has produced new food and pharmaceutical products and promises many more advances to benefit humankind. These exciting prospects are accompanied by considerable unease, however, about matters such as safety and ethics. This book identifies science-based and policy-related concerns about animal biotechnologya key issues that must be resolved before the new breakthroughs can reach their potential. The book includes a short history of the field and provides understandable definitions of terms like cloning. Looking at technologies on the near horizon, the authors discuss what we know and what we fear about their effectsa the inadvertent release of dangerous microorganisms, the safety of products derived from biotechnology, the impact of genetically engineered animals on their environment. In addition to these concerns, the book explores animal welfare concerns, and our societal and institutional capacity to manage and regulate the technology and its products. This accessible volume will be important to everyone interested in the implications of the use of animal biotechnology.
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22.77 USD

Animal Biotechnology: Science Based Concerns

by National Academy of Sciences, Debra Davis, National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Committee on Agricultural Biotechnology, Health, and the Environment, Committee on Defining Science-Based Concerns Associated with Products of Animal Biotechnology
Paperback / softback
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Beginning in the early 1980s, new technologies, began to permit evaluation of the expression of individual genes. Recent technological advances have expanded those evaluations to permit the simultaneous detection of the expression of tens of thousands of genes and to support holistic evaluations of the entire genome. The application of ...
Validation of Toxicogenomic Technologies: A Workshop Summary
Beginning in the early 1980s, new technologies, began to permit evaluation of the expression of individual genes. Recent technological advances have expanded those evaluations to permit the simultaneous detection of the expression of tens of thousands of genes and to support holistic evaluations of the entire genome. The application of these technologies has enabled researchers to unravel complexities of cell biology and, in conjunction with toxicologic evaluations, the technologies are used to probe and gain insight into questions of toxicologic relevance. As a result, the use of the technologies has become increasingly important for scientists in academia, as well as for the regulatory and drug development process.
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14.23 USD

Validation of Toxicogenomic Technologies: A Workshop Summary

by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Committee on Emerging Issues and Data on Environmental Contaminants, Committee on Validation of Toxicogenomic Technologies: A Focus on Chemical Classification Strategies
Paperback / softback
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The U.S. Army's Special Immunizations Program is an important component of an overall biosafety program for laboratory workers at risk of exposure to hazardous pathogens. The program provides immunizations to scientists, laboratory technicians and other support staff who work with certain hazardous pathogens and toxins. Although first established to serve ...
Protecting the Frontline in Biodefense Research: The Special Immunizations Program
The U.S. Army's Special Immunizations Program is an important component of an overall biosafety program for laboratory workers at risk of exposure to hazardous pathogens. The program provides immunizations to scientists, laboratory technicians and other support staff who work with certain hazardous pathogens and toxins. Although first established to serve military personnel, the program was expanded through a cost-sharing agreement in 2004 to include other government and civilian workers, reflecting the expansion in biodefense research in recent years. Protecting the Frontline in Biodefense Research examines issues related to the expansion of the Special Immunizations Program, considering the regulatory frameworks under which the vaccines are administered, how additional vaccines might be considered for inclusion in the Program, and factors that might influence the development and manufacturing of vaccines for the Special Immunizations Program.
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USD

Protecting the Frontline in Biodefense Research: The Special Immunizations Program

by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Committee on Special Immunizations Program for Laboratory Personnel Engaged in Research on Countermeasures for Select Agents
Paperback / softback
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Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed applications of gene drive research aim to solve environmental and public health challenges, including the reduction of poverty and the burden of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue, which disproportionately impact low and middle income countries. However, due to ...
Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values
Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed applications of gene drive research aim to solve environmental and public health challenges, including the reduction of poverty and the burden of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue, which disproportionately impact low and middle income countries. However, due to their intrinsic qualities of rapid spread and irreversibility, gene drive systems raise many questions with respect to their safety relative to public and environmental health. Because gene drive systems are designed to alter the environments we share in ways that will be hard to anticipate and impossible to completely roll back, questions about the ethics surrounding use of this research are complex and will require very careful exploration. Gene Drives on the Horizon outlines the state of knowledge relative to the science, ethics, public engagement, and risk assessment as they pertain to research directions of gene drive systems and governance of the research process. This report offers principles for responsible practices of gene drive research and related applications for use by investigators, their institutions, the research funders, and regulators.
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82.950000 USD

Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values

by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences
Paperback / softback
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Biology has entered an era in which interdisciplinary cooperation is at an all-time high, practical applications follow basic discoveries more quickly than ever before, and new technologies--recombinant DNA, scanning tunneling microscopes, and more--are revolutionizing the way science is conducted. The potential for scientific breakthroughs with significant implications for society has ...
Opportunities in Biology
Biology has entered an era in which interdisciplinary cooperation is at an all-time high, practical applications follow basic discoveries more quickly than ever before, and new technologies--recombinant DNA, scanning tunneling microscopes, and more--are revolutionizing the way science is conducted. The potential for scientific breakthroughs with significant implications for society has never been greater. Opportunities in Biology reports on the state of the new biology, taking a detailed look at the disciplines of biology; examining the advances made in medicine, agriculture, and other fields; and pointing out promising research opportunities. Authored by an expert panel representing a variety of viewpoints, this volume also offers recommendations on how to meet the infrastructure needs--for funding, effective information systems, and other support--of future biology research. Exploring what has been accomplished and what is on the horizon, Opportunities in Biology is an indispensable resource for students, teachers, and researchers in all subdisciplines of biology as well as for research administrators and those in funding agencies.
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121.010000 USD

Opportunities in Biology

by National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Commission on Life Sciences, Board on Biology, Committee on Research Opportunities in Biology
Paperback / softback
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Safeguarding U.S. agriculture from foreign animal diseases and protecting our food system require cutting-edge research and diagnostic capabilities. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have embarked on an important mission to replace the aging Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC) with a new ...
Evaluation of the Updated Site-Specific Risk Assessment for the National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas
Safeguarding U.S. agriculture from foreign animal diseases and protecting our food system require cutting-edge research and diagnostic capabilities. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have embarked on an important mission to replace the aging Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC) with a new facility, the National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF). When operational, this new facility would be the world's fourth biosafety level-4 laboratory capable of large animal research. It would serve as a critical world reference laboratory for identifying emerging and unknown disease threats, and would thus be a critical asset in securing the future health, wealth, and security of the nation. DHS selected Manhattan, Kansas, as the site for the new NBAF after an extensive site-selection process that involved an environmental impact statement. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) raised concerns about DHS's analysis of the potential spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDv), one of the most serious foreign animal disease threats. Congress directed DHS to conduct a site-specific risk assessment (SSRA) for the NBAF, instructed the National Research Council (NRC) to independently evaluate the SSRA, and prohibited obligation of NBAF construction funds until the NRC review was complete. Congress mandated that DHS revise its SSRA to address shortcomings of the 2010 SSRA, directed the NRC to evaluate the updated SSRA (uSSRA), and again prohibited obligation of construction funds until the completion of the second review. The scope for both of these SSRA reports addressed accidental release of pathogens from the NBAF in Manhattan, Kansas and excluded terrorist acts and malicious threats from its risk assessments. Evaluation of the Updated Site-Specific Risk Assessment for the National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas is the evaluation of the final uSSRA.
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27.56 USD

Evaluation of the Updated Site-Specific Risk Assessment for the National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas

by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Board on Life Sciences, Committee on the Evaluation of the Updated Site-Specific Risk Assessment for the National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas
Paperback / softback
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The tremendous progress in biology over the last half century - from Watson and Crick's elucidation of the structure of DNA to today's astonishing, rapid progress in the field of synthetic biology - has positioned us for significant innovation in chemical production. New bio-based chemicals, improved public health through improved ...
Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals
The tremendous progress in biology over the last half century - from Watson and Crick's elucidation of the structure of DNA to today's astonishing, rapid progress in the field of synthetic biology - has positioned us for significant innovation in chemical production. New bio-based chemicals, improved public health through improved drugs and diagnostics, and biofuels that reduce our dependency on oil are all results of research and innovation in the biological sciences. In the past decade, we have witnessed major advances made possible by biotechnology in areas such as rapid, low-cost DNA sequencing, metabolic engineering, and high-throughput screening. The manufacturing of chemicals using biological synthesis and engineering could expand even faster. A proactive strategy - implemented through the development of a technical roadmap similar to those that enabled sustained growth in the semiconductor industry and our explorations of space - is needed if we are to realize the widespread benefits of accelerating the industrialization of biology. Industrialization of Biology presents such a roadmap to achieve key technical milestones for chemical manufacturing through biological routes. This report examines the technical, economic, and societal factors that limit the adoption of bioprocessing in the chemical industry today and which, if surmounted, would markedly accelerate the advanced manufacturing of chemicals via industrial biotechnology. Working at the interface of synthetic chemistry, metabolic engineering, molecular biology, and synthetic biology, Industrialization of Biology identifies key technical goals for next-generation chemical manufacturing, then identifies the gaps in knowledge, tools, techniques, and systems required to meet those goals, and targets and timelines for achieving them. This report also considers the skills necessary to accomplish the roadmap goals, and what training opportunities are required to produce the cadre of skilled scientists and engineers needed.
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63.000000 USD

Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Committee On Industrialization Of Biology
Paperback / softback
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Dramatic developments in understanding the fundamental underpinnings of life have provided exciting opportunities to make marine bioproducts an important part of the U.S. economy. Several marine based pharmaceuticals are under active commercial development, ecosystem health is high on the public's list of concerns, and aquaculture is providing an ever greater ...
Marine Biotechnology in the Twenty-First Century: Problems, Promise, and Products
Dramatic developments in understanding the fundamental underpinnings of life have provided exciting opportunities to make marine bioproducts an important part of the U.S. economy. Several marine based pharmaceuticals are under active commercial development, ecosystem health is high on the public's list of concerns, and aquaculture is providing an ever greater proportion of the seafood on our tables. Nevertheless, marine biotechnology has not yet caught the public's, or investor's, attention. Two workshops, held in October 1999 and November 2001 at the National Academies, were successful in highlighting new developments and opportunities in environmental and biomedical applications of marine biotechnology, and also in identifying factors that are impeding commercial exploitation of these products. This report includes a synthesis of the 2001 sessions addressing drug discovery and development, applications of genomics and proteomics to marine biotechnology, biomaterials and bioengineering, and public policy and essays contributed by the workshop speakers.
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21.85 USD

Marine Biotechnology in the Twenty-First Century: Problems, Promise, and Products

by National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Ocean Studies Board, Committee on Marine Biotechnology: Biomedical Applications of Marine Natural Products
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The goal of this workshop was to bring together bioinformatics stake holders from government, academe, and industry for a day of presentations and dialogue. Fifteen experts identified and discussed some of the most important issues raised by the current flood of biologic data. Topics explored included the importance of database ...
Bioinformatics, Converting Data to Knowledge: Workshop Summary
The goal of this workshop was to bring together bioinformatics stake holders from government, academe, and industry for a day of presentations and dialogue. Fifteen experts identified and discussed some of the most important issues raised by the current flood of biologic data. Topics explored included the importance of database curation, database integration and interoperability, consistency and standards in terminology, error prevention and correction, data provenance, ontology, the importance of maintaining privacy, data mining, and the need for more computer scientists with specialty training in bioinformatics. Although formal conclusions and recommendations will not come from this particular workshop, many insights may be gleaned about the future of this field, from the context of the discussions and presentations described here.
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22.77 USD

Bioinformatics, Converting Data to Knowledge: Workshop Summary

by National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Commission on Life Sciences, Board on Biology, Joan Esnayra, Robert Pool
Paperback
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In May 2007, the National Academies Chemical Sciences Roundtable held a public workshop on the topic of Bioinspired Chemistry for Energy, where government, academic, and industry representatives discussed promising research developments in solar-generated fuels, hydrogen-processing enzymes, artificial photosynthetic systems, and biological-based fuel cells. Workshop participants identified the need for a ...
Research Frontiers in Bioinspired Energy: Molecular-Level Learning from Natural Systems: Report of a Workshop
In May 2007, the National Academies Chemical Sciences Roundtable held a public workshop on the topic of Bioinspired Chemistry for Energy, where government, academic, and industry representatives discussed promising research developments in solar-generated fuels, hydrogen-processing enzymes, artificial photosynthetic systems, and biological-based fuel cells. Workshop participants identified the need for a follow-up activity that would explore bioinspired energy processes in more depth and involve a wider array of disciplines as speakers and participants. Particularly, workshop participants stressed the importance of holding a workshop that would include more researchers from the biological sciences and engineering, as well as those involved in technological advances that enable progress in understanding these systems. Building upon the 2007 workshop, the National Academies Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology convened the Committee on Research Frontiers in Bioinspired Energy to organize a second workshop in 2011 which, according to the statement of task, would explore the molecular-level frontiers of energy processes in nature through an interactive, multidisciplinary, and public format. Specifically, the committee was charged to feature invited presentations and include discussion of key biological energy capture, storage, and transformation processes; gaps in knowledge and barriers to transitioning the current state of knowledge into applications; and underdeveloped research opportunities that might exist beyond disciplinary boundaries. Research Frontiers in Bioinspired Energy is an account of what occurred at the 2011 workshop, and does not attempt to present any consensus findings or recommendations of the workshop participants. It summarizes the views expressed by workshop participants, and while the committee is responsible for the overall quality and accuracy of the report as a record of what transpired at the workshop, the views contained in the report are not necessarily those of the committee.
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14.23 USD

Research Frontiers in Bioinspired Energy: Molecular-Level Learning from Natural Systems: Report of a Workshop

by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Committee on Research Frontiers in Bioinspired Energy
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In 2005, the National Academies released the report Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, which offered a common set of ethical standards for a field that, due to the absence of comprehensive federal funding, was lacking national standards for research. In order to keep the Guidelines up to date, ...
2007 Amendments to the National Academies' Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research
In 2005, the National Academies released the report Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, which offered a common set of ethical standards for a field that, due to the absence of comprehensive federal funding, was lacking national standards for research. In order to keep the Guidelines up to date, given the rapid pace of scientific developments in the field of stem cell research, the Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Advisory Committee was established in 2006 with support from The Ellison Medical Foundation, The Greenwall Foundation, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. This letter report is the committee's first set of amendments to the Guidelines and clarifies earlier recommendations and conclusions, including the criteria for determining which stem cell lines it is acceptable to use. Future deliberations of the committee will address items for which additional information gathering and more extensive debate and discussion will be necessary.
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14.23 USD

2007 Amendments to the National Academies' Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research

by National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Institute of Medicine, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Board on Life Sciences, Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Advisory Committee
Paperback / softback
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The American chestnut, whitebark pine, and several species of ash in the eastern United States are just a few of the North American tree species that have been functionally lost or are in jeopardy of being lost due to outbreaks of pathogens and insect pests. New pressures in this century ...
Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations
The American chestnut, whitebark pine, and several species of ash in the eastern United States are just a few of the North American tree species that have been functionally lost or are in jeopardy of being lost due to outbreaks of pathogens and insect pests. New pressures in this century are putting even more trees at risk. Expanded human mobility and global trade are providing pathways for the introduction of nonnative pests for which native tree species may lack resistance. At the same time, climate change is extending the geographic range of both native and nonnative pest species. Biotechnology has the potential to help mitigate threats to North American forests from insects and pathogens through the introduction of pest-resistant traits to forest trees. However, challenges remain: the genetic mechanisms that underlie treesaEURO (TM) resistance to pests are poorly understood; the complexity of tree genomes makes incorporating genetic changes a slow and difficult task; and there is a lack of information on the effects of releasing new genotypes into the environment. Forest Health and Biotechnology examines the potential use of biotechnology for mitigating threats to forest tree health and identifies the ecological, economic, and social implications of deploying biotechnology in forests. This report also develops a research agenda to address knowledge gaps about the application of the technology.
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94.500000 USD

Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations

by Committee on the Potential for Biotechnology to Address Forest Health, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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A new focus on glycoscience, a field that explores the structures and functions of sugars, promises great advances in areas as diverse as medicine, energy generation, and materials science, this report finds. Glycans--also known as carbohydrates, saccharides, or simply as sugars--play central roles in many biological processes and have properties ...
Transforming Glycoscience: A Roadmap for the Future
A new focus on glycoscience, a field that explores the structures and functions of sugars, promises great advances in areas as diverse as medicine, energy generation, and materials science, this report finds. Glycans--also known as carbohydrates, saccharides, or simply as sugars--play central roles in many biological processes and have properties useful in an array of applications. However, glycans have received little attention from the research community due to a lack of tools to probe their often complex structures and properties. Transforming Glycoscience: A Roadmap for the Future presents a roadmap for transforming glycoscience from a field dominated by specialists to a widely studied and integrated discipline, which could lead to a more complete understanding of glycans and help solve key challenges in diverse fields.
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29.47 USD

Transforming Glycoscience: A Roadmap for the Future

by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Committee on Assessing the Importance and Impact of Glycomics and Glycosciences
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Traditionally, the natural sciences have been divided into two branches: the biological sciences and the physical sciences. Today, an increasing number of scientists are addressing problems lying at the intersection of the two. These problems are most often biological in nature, but examining them through the lens of the physical ...
Research at the Intersection of the Physical and Life Sciences
Traditionally, the natural sciences have been divided into two branches: the biological sciences and the physical sciences. Today, an increasing number of scientists are addressing problems lying at the intersection of the two. These problems are most often biological in nature, but examining them through the lens of the physical sciences can yield exciting results and opportunities. For example, one area producing effective cross-discipline research opportunities centers on the dynamics of systems. Equilibrium, multistability, and stochastic behavior--concepts familiar to physicists and chemists--are now being used to tackle issues associated with living systems such as adaptation, feedback, and emergent behavior. Research at the Intersection of the Physical and Life Sciences discusses how some of the most important scientific and societal challenges can be addressed, at least in part, by collaborative research that lies at the intersection of traditional disciplines, including biology, chemistry, and physics. This book describes how some of the mysteries of the biological world are being addressed using tools and techniques developed in the physical sciences, and identifies five areas of potentially transformative research. Work in these areas would have significant impact in both research and society at large by expanding our understanding of the physical world and by revealing new opportunities for advancing public health, technology, and stewardship of the environment. This book recommends several ways to accelerate such cross-discipline research. Many of these recommendations are directed toward those administering the faculties and resources of our great research institutions--and the stewards of our research funders, making this book an excellent resource for academic and research institutions, scientists, universities, and federal and private funding agencies.
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20.92 USD

Research at the Intersection of the Physical and Life Sciences

by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Board on Life Sciences, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Committee on Forefronts of Science at the Interface of Physical and Life Sciences
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Genetic-based animal biotechnology has produced new food and pharmaceutical products and promises many more advances to benefit humankind. These exciting prospects are accompanied by considerable unease, however, about matters such as safety and ethics. This book identifies science-based and policy-related concerns about animal biotechnologya key issues that must be resolved ...
Animal Biotechnology: Science Based Concerns
Genetic-based animal biotechnology has produced new food and pharmaceutical products and promises many more advances to benefit humankind. These exciting prospects are accompanied by considerable unease, however, about matters such as safety and ethics. This book identifies science-based and policy-related concerns about animal biotechnologya key issues that must be resolved before the new breakthroughs can reach their potential. The book includes a short history of the field and provides understandable definitions of terms like cloning. Looking at technologies on the near horizon, the authors discuss what we know and what we fear about their effectsa the inadvertent release of dangerous microorganisms, the safety of products derived from biotechnology, the impact of genetically engineered animals on their environment. In addition to these concerns, the book explores animal welfare concerns, and our societal and institutional capacity to manage and regulate the technology and its products. This accessible volume will be important to everyone interested in the implications of the use of animal biotechnology.
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Animal Biotechnology: Science Based Concerns

by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Committee on Agricultural Biotechnology, Health, and the Environment, Committee on Defining Science-Based Concerns Associated with Products of Animal Biotechnology
Hardback
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Although its importance is not always recognized, theory is an integral part of all biological research. Biologists' theoretical and conceptual frameworks inform every step of their research, affecting what experiments they do, what techniques and technologies they develop and use, and how they interpret their data. By examining how theory ...
The Role of Theory in Advancing 21st-Century Biology: Catalyzing Transformative Research
Although its importance is not always recognized, theory is an integral part of all biological research. Biologists' theoretical and conceptual frameworks inform every step of their research, affecting what experiments they do, what techniques and technologies they develop and use, and how they interpret their data. By examining how theory can help biologists answer questions like What are the engineering principles of life? or How do cells really work? the report shows how theory synthesizes biological knowledge from the molecular level to the level of whole ecosystems. The book concludes that theory is already an inextricable thread running throughout the practice of biology; but that explicitly giving theory equal status with other components of biological research could help catalyze transformative research that will lead to creative, dynamic, and innovative advances in our understanding of life.
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The Role of Theory in Advancing 21st-Century Biology: Catalyzing Transformative Research

by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Committee on Defining and Advancing the Conceptual Basis of Biological Sciences in the 21st Century
Hardback
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