The Sacramentary of Ratoldus (Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France, lat. 12052)
The highly complex combined sacramentary and pontifical presented here, preserved as Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France, lat. 12052, was apparently written to the order of Ratoldus, abbot of Corbie (d. 986), but in fact has a long and complicated history. The sacramentary descends from a book compiled at Saint-Denis, later augmented with material relating to Dol (in Brittany) and Arras, while the pontifical, such as it is, descends in large part from a book drawn up for Oda, archbishop of Canterbury (941-58). Moreover, late-tenth and eleventh-century additions show that Corbie was merely the last link in a fascinating and sometimes puzzling chain. The work is thus of considerable importance to scholars and this edition, with introduction, will be warmly welcomed. Dr NICHOLAS ORCHARD is Deputy Slide Librarian at the Courtauld Institute of Art.