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Why do we know so much more about the cosmos than our own consciousness? Are there limits to the scientific method? Why do we assume that only science, mathematics and technology reveal truth? The Flip shows us what happens when we realise that consciousness is fundamental to the cosmos and ...
The Flip: Who You Really Are and Why It Matters
Why do we know so much more about the cosmos than our own consciousness? Are there limits to the scientific method? Why do we assume that only science, mathematics and technology reveal truth? The Flip shows us what happens when we realise that consciousness is fundamental to the cosmos and not some random evolutionary accident or surface cognitive illusion; that everything is alive, connected, and 'one'. We meet the people who have made this visionary, intuitive leap towards new forms of knowledge: Mark Twain's prophetic dreams, Marie Curie's seances, Einstein's cosmically attuned mind. But these forms of knowledge are not archaic; indeed, they are essential in a universe that has evolved specifically to be understandable by the consciousnesses we inhabit. The Flip peels back the layers of our beliefs about the world to reveal a visionary, new way of understanding ourselves and everything around us, with huge repercussions for how we live our lives. After all, once we have flipped, we understand that the cosmos is not just human. The human is also cosmic.
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14.02 USD
Paperback / softback
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no signal: Through Undulations of Life
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9.440000 USD

no signal: Through Undulations of Life

by Jay Vikram
Paperback / softback
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There is no simple set of instructions that can guarantee sanity, but if you want to overcome emotional difficulties and become happier, psychotherapist Philippa Perry, author of The Book You Wish Your Parents Had Read, argues that there are four cornerstones to sanity you can influence to bring about change. ...
How to Stay Sane
There is no simple set of instructions that can guarantee sanity, but if you want to overcome emotional difficulties and become happier, psychotherapist Philippa Perry, author of The Book You Wish Your Parents Had Read, argues that there are four cornerstones to sanity you can influence to bring about change. By developing your self-observation skills, examining how you relate to others, breaking out of your comfort zone and exploring new ways of defining yourself, Philippa demonstrates that it is possible to become a little less tortured and a little more fulfilled. How to Stay Sane is at once a brilliant explanation of our minds and a profoundly useful guide to facing up to the many challenges life throws our way. Discover more inspirational guides from The School of Life series: How to Find Fulfilling Work by Roman Krznaric, How to Worry Less About Money by John Armstrong, How to Change the World by John-Paul Flintoff, How to Thrive in the Digital Age by Tom Chatfield and How to Think More About Sex by Alain de Botton.
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14.88 USD

How to Stay Sane

by Philippa Perry
Paperback / softback
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Born in poverty in India, Jiddu Krishnamurti (1895-1986) became a leading spiritual and philosophical thinker whose ideas continue to influence us today. George Bernard Shaw declared that he was the most beautiful human being he had ever seen and Aldous Huxley was one of his close friends. Whether debating politics ...
Freedom from the Known
Born in poverty in India, Jiddu Krishnamurti (1895-1986) became a leading spiritual and philosophical thinker whose ideas continue to influence us today. George Bernard Shaw declared that he was the most beautiful human being he had ever seen and Aldous Huxley was one of his close friends. Whether debating politics with Nehru, discussing theories with Rupert Sheldrake and Iris Murdoch, or challenging his students not to take his words at face value, Krishnamurti engaged fully with every aspect of life. He is regarded by many modern religious figures as a great teacher, an extraordinary individual with revolutionary insights; Joseph Campbell, Alan Watts, Eckhart Tolle and Deepak Chopra are all indebted to his writings. Freedom from the Known is one of Krishnamurti's most accessible works. Here, he reveals how we can free ourselves radically and immediately from the tyranny of the expected. By changing ourselves, we can alter the structure of society and our relationships. The vital need for change and the recognition of its very possibility form an essential part of this important book's message.
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13.16 USD

Freedom from the Known

by J. Krishnamurti
Paperback / softback
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Why has time sped up? Why is there never enough? How can you make it yours again? On Time reveals why time sped up, why there never seems to be enough, and how to make it yours again. We have more time than ever - so why do we feel ...
On Time: Finding Your Pace in a World Addicted to Fast
Why has time sped up? Why is there never enough? How can you make it yours again? On Time reveals why time sped up, why there never seems to be enough, and how to make it yours again. We have more time than ever - so why do we feel time poor? This is because our world is addicted to fast and we have become its servant. Instead of grasping the liberating potential of technology, many of us are stuck in a doomed race to outpace hurry. Catherine Blyth combines cutting-edge research in neuroscience and psychology with stories ranging from Leonardo da Vince to Anna Wintour, Kant, and Keith Richards, to reveal timeless truths about humanity's finest invention and how it shapes our lives. Angry, witty and enlightening, On Time is a handbook for navigating a fast-forward world that asks the questions productivity guides ignore such as why time speeds up when you long for it to slow down, how to reset your body clock, and what hours suit which activities best. So stop clock-watching and quit chasing white rabbits. Rediscover how time can be your servant.
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14.02 USD
Paperback / softback
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As seen in the MAIL ON SUNDAY, THE DAILY MAIL, THE TELEGRAPH and as heard BBC RADIO 2 with Chris Evans. 'A lovely book. Offers a little lesson every day on how to be more mindful, to slow time down or stop time.' Chris Evans, BBC Radio 2 --------------------------------------------------- A ...
The Art of Stopping Time
As seen in the MAIL ON SUNDAY, THE DAILY MAIL, THE TELEGRAPH and as heard BBC RADIO 2 with Chris Evans. 'A lovely book. Offers a little lesson every day on how to be more mindful, to slow time down or stop time.' Chris Evans, BBC Radio 2 --------------------------------------------------- A frantic world . . . or a frantic mind? The New York Times bestselling author Pedram Shojai reveals what it takes to stop time . . . Discover the deepest secrets of time and take control of your life. By following the 100-day Gong ritual - allocating a set amount of time each day, a 'Gong', to everyday tasks - you will not only find your mind is calmer and clearer but also that you have the space to accomplish what you want in life. Taoist Minister and New York Times bestselling author Pedram Shojai shows how the ancient spiritual practice of stopping time can be turned into a simple and effective life skill to help you feel less stressed, more rested and able to focus on what matters most. 'The Art of Stopping Time is a powerful book that will help you at this critical juncture in history, when time seems to disappear in an instant. I highly recommend it.' Daniel G. Amen, MD, Founder, Amen Clinics and author of Memory Rescue 'Who knew that the way to gain more time was actually to stop, be present, and dedicate time to specific activities' JJ Virgin, New York Times bestselling author of The Virgin Diet and Sugar Impact Diet
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15.74 USD
Hardback
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Problems in linking representation and perceived things in the world are discussed in light of the role played by a preconceptual indexing mechanism that functions to identify, reidentify, and track objects. InThings and Places, Zenon Pylyshyn argues that the process of incrementally constructing perceptual representations, solving the binding problem (determining ...
Things and Places: How the Mind Connects with the World
Problems in linking representation and perceived things in the world are discussed in light of the role played by a preconceptual indexing mechanism that functions to identify, reidentify, and track objects. InThings and Places, Zenon Pylyshyn argues that the process of incrementally constructing perceptual representations, solving the binding problem (determining which properties go together), and, more generally, grounding perceptual representations in experience arise from the nonconceptual capacity to pick out and keep track of a small number of sensory individuals. He proposes a mechanism in early vision that allows us to select a limited number of sensory objects, to reidentify each of them under certain conditions as the same individual seen before, and to keep track of their enduring individuality despite radical changes in their properties-all without the machinery of concepts, identity, and tenses. This mechanism, which he calls FINSTs (for Fingers of Instantiation ), is responsible for our capacity to individuate and track several independently moving sensory objects-an ability that we exercise every waking minute, and one that can be understood as fundamental to the way we see and understand the world and to our sense of space. Pylyshyn examines certain empirical phenomena of early vision in light of the FINST mechanism, including tracking and attentional selection. He argues provocatively that the initial selection of perceptual individuals is our primary nonconceptual contact with the perceptual world (a contact that does not depend on prior encoding of any properties of the thing selected) and then draws upon a wide range of empirical data to support a radical externalist theory of spatial representation that grows out of his indexing theory.
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11.49 USD
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A proposal that the cognitive processes that make us moral agents are partially constituted by features of our external environments. What are the psychological foundations of morality? Historically, the issue has been framed as one of emotion versus reason. Hume argued that reason is the slave of the passions and ...
Like-Minded: Externalism and Moral Psychology
A proposal that the cognitive processes that make us moral agents are partially constituted by features of our external environments. What are the psychological foundations of morality? Historically, the issue has been framed as one of emotion versus reason. Hume argued that reason is the slave of the passions and so morality must be based on them; Kant argued that moral law is given by rational agents to themselves in virtue of their rationality. The debate has continued in these terms to the present day. In Like-Minded, Andrew Sneddon argues that reason and passion do not satisfactorily capture all the important options for explaining the psychological foundations of morality. He proposes a third possibility: that the cognitive processes that make us moral agents are centrally constituted by features of our external environments. Sneddon calls this the Wide Moral Systems Hypothesis (WMSH). The WMSH fits within an array of positions known as externalism or the Extended Mind Hypothesis, according to which the world outside our bodies is not just input to cognitive processes located within our brains but partially constitutes those processes. After explaining the WMSH, Sneddon presents a series of more particular hypotheses about distinct aspects of our moral psychology: moral judgment, moral reasoning, the attribution of moral responsibility, and production of action. Sneddon revisits overlooked externalist aspects of moral psychology, noting the integration of agent and environment found in existing research. With Like-Minded, Sneddon offers an innovative contribution to work in both moral psychology and the Extended Mind Hypothesis.
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10.490000 USD
Hardback
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How are the mind and body harnessed together? In The Mind Incarnate, Lawrence Shapiro addresses this question by testing two widely accepted hypotheses, the multiple realizability thesis and the separability thesis. He argues that there is signficicant-though far from decisive-evidence against them. While contemporary philosophers no longer view the mind ...
The Mind Incarnate
How are the mind and body harnessed together? In The Mind Incarnate, Lawrence Shapiro addresses this question by testing two widely accepted hypotheses, the multiple realizability thesis and the separability thesis. He argues that there is signficicant-though far from decisive-evidence against them. While contemporary philosophers no longer view the mind as a supernatural entity-the famous Ghost in the Machine dogma that Gilbert Ryle ridiculed over fifty years ago-Shapiro argues that naturalistic approaches to understanding the mind retain their own naturalized varieties of ghosts. In particular, the multiple realizability thesis holds that the connection between human minds and human brains is in some sense accidental: the tie between mental properties and neural properties is not physically necessary. According to the separability thesis, the mind is a largely autonomous component residing in the body that contributes little to its functioning. Shapiro tests these hypotheses against two rivals, the mental constraint thesis and the embodied mind thesis. Collecting evidence from a variety of sources (e.g., neuroscience, evolutionary theory, and embodied cognition) he concludes that the multiple realizability thesis, accepted by most philosophers as a virtual truism, is much less obvious than commonly assumed, and that there is even stronger reason to give up the separability thesis. In contrast to views of mind that tempt us to see the mind as simply being resident in a brain or body, Shapiro view is a far more encompassing integration of mind, brain, and body than philosophers have supposed.
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10.490000 USD

The Mind Incarnate

by Lawrence A. Shapiro
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In Real Natures and Familiar Objects Crawford Elder defends, with qualifications, the ontology of common sense. He argues that we exist -- that no gloss is necessary for the statement human beings exist to show that it is true of the world as it really is -- and that we ...
Real Natures and Familiar Objects
In Real Natures and Familiar Objects Crawford Elder defends, with qualifications, the ontology of common sense. He argues that we exist -- that no gloss is necessary for the statement human beings exist to show that it is true of the world as it really is -- and that we are surrounded by many of the medium-sized objects in which common sense believes. He argues further that these familiar medium-sized objects not only exist, but have essential properties, which we are often able to determine by observation. The starting point of his argument is that ontology should operate under empirical load -- that is, it should give special weight to the objects and properties that we treat as real in our best predictions and explanations of what happens in the world. Elder calls this presumption mildly controversial because it entails that arguments are needed for certain widely assumed positions such as mereological universalism (according to which the sum of randomly assembled objects constitutes an object in its own right). Elder begins by defending realism about essentialness (arguing that nature's objects have essential properties whose status as essential is mind-independent). He then defends this view of familiar objects against causal exclusion arguments and worries about vagueness. Finally, he argues that many of the objects in which common sense believes really exist, including artifacts and biological devices shaped by natural selection, and that we too exist, as products of natural selection.
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11.49 USD
Paperback / softback
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In Natural Ethical Facts William Casebeer argues that we can articulate a fully naturalized ethical theory using concepts from evolutionary biology and cognitive science, and that we can study moral cognition just as we study other forms of cognition. His goal is to show that we have softly fixed human ...
Natural Ethical Facts: Evolution, Connectionism, and Moral Cognition
In Natural Ethical Facts William Casebeer argues that we can articulate a fully naturalized ethical theory using concepts from evolutionary biology and cognitive science, and that we can study moral cognition just as we study other forms of cognition. His goal is to show that we have softly fixed human natures, that these natures are evolved, and that our lives go well or badly depending on how we satisfy the functional demands of these natures. Natural Ethical Facts is a comprehensive examination of what a plausible moral science would look like. Casebeer begins by discussing the nature of ethics and the possible relationship between science and ethics. He then addresses David Hume's naturalistic fallacy and G. E. Moore's open-question argument, drawing on the work of John Dewey and W. V. O. Quine. He then proposes a functional account of ethics, offering corresponding biological and moral descriptions. Discussing in detail the neural correlates of moral cognition, he argues that neural networks can be used to model ethical function. He then discusses the impact his views of moral epistemology and ontology will have on traditional ethical theory and moral education, concluding that there is room for other moral theories as long as they take into consideration the functional aspect of ethics; the pragmatic neo-Aristotelian virtue theory he proposes thus serves as a moral big tent. Finally, he addresses objections to ethical naturalism that may arise, and calls for a reconciliation of the sciences and the humanities. Living well, Casebeer writes, depends upon reweaving our ethical theories into the warp and woof of our scientific heritage, attending to the myriad consequences such a project will have for the way we live our lives and the manner in which we structure our collective moral institutions.
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10.490000 USD
Hardback
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Neuroimagers and philosophers of mind explore critical issues and controversies that have arisen from the use of brain mapping in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive science. The field of neuroimaging has reached a watershed. Brain imaging research has been the source of many advances in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive science over ...
Foundational Issues in Human Brain Mapping
Neuroimagers and philosophers of mind explore critical issues and controversies that have arisen from the use of brain mapping in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive science. The field of neuroimaging has reached a watershed. Brain imaging research has been the source of many advances in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive science over the last decade, but recent critiques and emerging trends are raising foundational issues of methodology, measurement, and theory. Indeed, concerns over interpretation of brain maps have created serious controversies in social neuroscience, and, more important, point to a larger set of issues that lie at the heart of the entire brain mapping enterprise. In this volume, leading scholars-neuroimagers and philosophers of mind-reexamine these central issues and explore current controversies that have arisen in cognitive science, cognitive neuroscience, computer science, and signal processing. The contributors address both statistical and dynamical analysis and modeling of neuroimaging data and interpretation, discussing localization, modularity, and neuroimagers' tacit assumptions about how these two phenomena are related; controversies over correlation of fMRI data and social attributions (recently characterized for good or ill as voodoo correlations ); and the standard inferential design approach in neuroimaging. Finally, the contributors take a more philosophical perspective, considering the nature of measurement in brain imaging, and offer a framework for novel neuroimaging data structures (effective and functional connectivity- graphs ). Contributors William Bechtel, Bharat Biswal, Matthew Brett, Martin Bunzl, Max Coltheart, Karl J. Friston, Joy J. Geng, Clark Glymour, Kalanit Grill-Spector, Stephen Jose Hanson, Trevor Harley, Gilbert Harman, James V. Haxby, Rik N. Henson, Nancy Kanwisher, Colin Klein, Richard Loosemore, Sebastien Meriaux, Chris Mole, Jeanette A. Mumford, Russell A. Poldrack, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Richard C. Richardson, Alexis Roche, Adina L. Roskies, Pia Rotshtein, Rebecca Saxe, Philipp Sterzer, Bertrand Thirion, Edward Vul
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10.490000 USD
Paperback / softback
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A comprehensive proposal for a conceptual framework for describing conscious experience in dreams, integrating philosophy of mind, sleep and dream research, and interdisciplinary consciousness studies. Dreams, conceived as conscious experience or phenomenal states during sleep, offer an important contrast condition for theories of consciousness and the self. Yet, although there ...
Dreaming: A Conceptual Framework for Philosophy of Mind and Empirical Research
A comprehensive proposal for a conceptual framework for describing conscious experience in dreams, integrating philosophy of mind, sleep and dream research, and interdisciplinary consciousness studies. Dreams, conceived as conscious experience or phenomenal states during sleep, offer an important contrast condition for theories of consciousness and the self. Yet, although there is a wealth of empirical research on sleep and dreaming, its potential contribution to consciousness research and philosophy of mind is largely overlooked. This might be due, in part, to a lack of conceptual clarity and an underlying disagreement about the nature of the phenomenon of dreaming itself. In Dreaming, Jennifer Windt lays the groundwork for solving this problem. She develops a conceptual framework describing not only what it means to say that dreams are conscious experiences but also how to locate dreams relative to such concepts as perception, hallucination, and imagination, as well as thinking, knowledge, belief, deception, and self-consciousness. Arguing that a conceptual framework must be not only conceptually sound but also phenomenologically plausible and carefully informed by neuroscientific research, Windt integrates her review of philosophical work on dreaming, both historical and contemporary, with a survey of the most important empirical findings. This allows her to work toward a systematic and comprehensive new theoretical understanding of dreaming informed by a critical reading of contemporary research findings. Windt's account demonstrates that a philosophical analysis of the concept of dreaming can provide an important enrichment and extension to the conceptual repertoire of discussions of consciousness and the self and raises new questions for future research.
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10.490000 USD
Hardback
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A philosophical refashioning of the Language of Thought approach and the related computational theory of mind. The language of thought (LOT) approach to the nature of mind has been highly influential in cognitive science and the philosophy of mind; and yet, as Susan Schneider argues, its philosophical foundations are weak. ...
The Language of Thought: A New Philosophical Direction
A philosophical refashioning of the Language of Thought approach and the related computational theory of mind. The language of thought (LOT) approach to the nature of mind has been highly influential in cognitive science and the philosophy of mind; and yet, as Susan Schneider argues, its philosophical foundations are weak. In this philosophical refashioning of LOT and the related computational theory of mind (CTM), Schneider offers a different framework than has been developed by LOT and CTM's main architect, Jerry Fodor: one that seeks integration with neuroscience, repudiates Fodor's pessimism about the capacity of cognitive science to explain cognition, embraces pragmatism, and advances a different approach to the nature of concepts, mental symbols, and modes of presentation. According to the LOT approach, conceptual thought is determined by the manipulation of mental symbols according to algorithms. Schneider tackles three key problems that have plagued the LOT approach for decades: the computational nature of the central system (the system responsible for higher cognitive function); the nature of symbols; and Frege cases. To address these problems,] Schneider develops a computational theory that is based on the Global Workspace approach; develops a theory of symbols, the algorithmic view ; and brings her theory of symbols to bear on LOT's account of the causation of thought and behavior. In the course of solving these problems, Schneider shows that LOT must make peace with both computationalism and pragmatism; indeed, the new conception of symbols renders LOT a pragmatist theory. And LOT must turn its focus to cognitive and computational neuroscience for its naturalism to succeed.
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10.490000 USD
Paperback / softback
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The number one bestseller in France and Italy, from Francoise Heritier, The Sweetness of Life is a beautiful and poetic list of the everyday reasons that make life worth living If you assume an average life expectancy of 85 years, and deduct the hours we spend daily on sleeping, shopping, ...
The Sweetness of Life
The number one bestseller in France and Italy, from Francoise Heritier, The Sweetness of Life is a beautiful and poetic list of the everyday reasons that make life worth living If you assume an average life expectancy of 85 years, and deduct the hours we spend daily on sleeping, shopping, eating, working, tending to our relationships and on everything else that is obligatory, then how much time is left for the average person to enjoy those activities that are the sweetness of life? For Francoise Heritier, it is those activities, those moments that make up pure sensuality, the actual experience of humanity. These are the moments we all cherish: wild laughter, coffee in the sun, the bliss of fresh autumn evenings, running in warm rain, long conversations at twilight, kisses on the back of the neck, the moment when all nature falls silent, those times when you know that someone likes you, is looking at you and listening to you, cooking a complicated dish, feeling agile and sprightly, getting back together with friends you haven't seen in ages, watching a craftsman at work, listening to other people. There's still so much else that I forget , says Heritier, and she goes on to list, with heart-warming and heart-breaking specificity, all that we so easily miss if we do not attend to the lightness and grace in the simple fact of existence, life's sweetness. What about you, what would you miss if all this had to disappear from your life forever? 'A series of perceptions, sensations, eddies, and happiness of writing that gives a real intensity to the existence ... a true wonder' Laure Adler Francoise Heritier, an anthropologist, is Emeritus Professor at the College de France and the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. She is the author of such highly successful works as Masculin/feminin and De la violence, translated into more than ten languages. Le Sel de la Vie (translated into English as The Sweetness of Life) is a French bestseller.
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13.00 USD

The Sweetness of Life

by Francoise Heritier
Paperback / softback
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The week has a remarkable rhythm that does not fit exactly with either the month or the year. Yet most of humanity keeps faith with this sevenfold rhythm. Why did the seven-day week triumph over the many other ways that existed of subdividing the month in ancient times? The answer, ...
Rhythms of the Week: And Other Explorations of Time
The week has a remarkable rhythm that does not fit exactly with either the month or the year. Yet most of humanity keeps faith with this sevenfold rhythm. Why did the seven-day week triumph over the many other ways that existed of subdividing the month in ancient times? The answer, as Wolfgang Held shows, is rooted in the human being. Just as activity and passivity alternate during the course of a day, the human soul resonates from day to day in seven differing moods. Deepening our understanding of the characteristic weekly rhythm can give us strength and inspiration for the way we live our lives. Why is the present always also informed by the future? When are we best able to discover new questions? Why do we grow a little weary every four hours? How long can we concentrate for? Why does it make a difference whether we think about something in the evening or the morning? Wolfgang Held introduces us to the diverse rhythms at work in our lives: from tiny seconds to the great cosmic divisions of the Platonic year. Just as we have learned to orient ourselves in space, so we can develop our potential through a conscious relationship with time. This practical and inspirational book contains discussions from two separate German editions, Der siebenfache Flugelschlag der Seele (The Soul's Sevenfold Wingbeat) and Vier Minuten Sternenzeit (Four Minutes of Star Time), offering us fascinating insights into how we can live in harmony with time.
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15.700000 USD
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An account of how humans evolved a conscious, vision-related ability unique to their species in order to solve nonroutine problems. In order to solve problems, humans are able to synthesize apparently unrelated concepts, take advantage of serendipitous opportunities, hypothesize, invent, and engage in other similarly abstract and creative activities, primarily ...
Scenario Visualization: An Evolutionary Account of Creative Problem Solving
An account of how humans evolved a conscious, vision-related ability unique to their species in order to solve nonroutine problems. In order to solve problems, humans are able to synthesize apparently unrelated concepts, take advantage of serendipitous opportunities, hypothesize, invent, and engage in other similarly abstract and creative activities, primarily through the use of their visual systems. In Scenario Visualization, Robert Arp offers an evolutionary account of the unique human ability to solve nonroutine vision-related problems. He argues that by the close of the Pleistocene epoch, humans evolved a conscious creative problem-solving capacity, which he terms scenario visualization, that enabled them to outlive other hominid species and populate the planet. Arp shows that the evidence for scenario visualization-by which images are selected, integrated, and then transformed and projected into visual scenarios-can be found in the kinds of complex tools our hominid ancestors invented in order to survive in the ever-changing environments of the Pleistocene world. Arp also argues that this conscious capacity shares an analogous affinity with neurobiological processes of selectivity and integration in the visual system, and that similar processes can be found in the activities of organisms in general. The evolution of these processes, he writes, helps account for the modern-day conscious ability of humans to use visual information to solve nonroutine problems creatively in their environments. Arp's account of scenario visualization and its emergence in evolutionary history suggests an answer to two basic questions asked by philosophers and biologists concerning human nature: why we are unique; and how we got that way. Robert Arp is Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. His areas of specialization include philosophy of biology and philosophy of mind. He is the author of numerous articles and the forthcoming An Integrated Approach to the Philosophy of Mind.
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10.490000 USD
Hardback
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What, if anything do dreams tell us about ourselves? What is the relationship between types of sleep and types of dreams? Does dreaming serve any purpose? Or are dreams simply meaningless mental noise-'unmusical fingers wandering over the piano keys'? With expertise in philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience, Owen Flanagan is uniquely ...
Dreaming Souls: Sleep, Dreams, and the Evolution of the Conscious Mind: Sleep, Dreams, and the Evolution of the Conscious Mind
What, if anything do dreams tell us about ourselves? What is the relationship between types of sleep and types of dreams? Does dreaming serve any purpose? Or are dreams simply meaningless mental noise-'unmusical fingers wandering over the piano keys'? With expertise in philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience, Owen Flanagan is uniquely qualified to answer those questions. And in Dreaming Souls he provides both an accessible survey of the latest research on sleep and dreams and a compelling new theory about the nature and function of dreaming. Flanagan argues that while sleep has a clear biological function and adaptive value, dreams are merely side effects, 'free-riders', irrelevant from an evolutionary point of view. But dreams are hardly unimportant. Indeed, Flanagan argues that dreams are self-expressive, the result of our need to find or create meaning, even when we are sleeping. Rejecting Freud's theory of manifest and latent content-of repressed wishes appearing in disguised form-Flanagan shows how brainstem activity during sleep generates a jumbled profusion of memories, images, thoughts, emotions, and desires, which the cerebral cortex then attempts to shape into a more or less coherent story. Such dream narratives range from the relatively mundane worries of non-REM sleep tot he fantastic confabulations of deep REM that resemble pyschotic episodes in their strangeness. But, however bizarre these narratives may be, they can shed light on our mental life, our well being, and our sense of self. Written with clarity, lively wit, and remarkable insight, Dreaming Souls offers a fascinating new way of apprehending one of the oldest mysteries of mental life.
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41.990000 USD

Dreaming Souls: Sleep, Dreams, and the Evolution of the Conscious Mind: Sleep, Dreams, and the Evolution of the Conscious Mind

by Owen Flanagan
Paperback / softback
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A philosopher argues that we know little about our own inner lives. Do you dream in color? If you answer Yes, how can you be sure? Before you recount your vivid memory of a dream featuring all the colors of the rainbow, consider that in the 1950s researchers found that ...
Perplexities of Consciousness
A philosopher argues that we know little about our own inner lives. Do you dream in color? If you answer Yes, how can you be sure? Before you recount your vivid memory of a dream featuring all the colors of the rainbow, consider that in the 1950s researchers found that most people reported dreaming in black and white. In the 1960s, when most movies were in color and more people had color television sets, the vast majority of reported dreams contained color. The most likely explanation for this, according to the philosopher Eric Schwitzgebel, is not that exposure to black-and-white media made people misremember their dreams. It is that we simply don't know whether or not we dream in color. In Perplexities of Consciousness, Schwitzgebel examines various aspects of inner life (dreams, mental imagery, emotions, and other subjective phenomena) and argues that we know very little about our stream of conscious experience. Drawing broadly from historical and recent philosophy and psychology to examine such topics as visual perspective, and the unreliability of introspection, Schwitzgebel finds us singularly inept in our judgments about conscious experience.
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10.59 USD
Paperback / softback
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Contrary to standard assumptions, reasoning is often an emotional process. Emotions can have good effects, as when a scientist gets excited about a line of research and pursues it successfully despite criticism. But emotions can also distort reasoning, as when a juror ignores evidence of guilt just because the accused ...
Hot Thought: Mechanisms and Applications of Emotional Cognition
Contrary to standard assumptions, reasoning is often an emotional process. Emotions can have good effects, as when a scientist gets excited about a line of research and pursues it successfully despite criticism. But emotions can also distort reasoning, as when a juror ignores evidence of guilt just because the accused seems like a nice guy. In Hot Thought, Paul Thagard describes the mental mechanisms-cognitive, neural, molecular, and social-that interact to produce different kinds of human thinking, from everyday decision making to legal reasoning, scientific discovery, and religious belief, and he discusses when and how thinking and reasoning should be emotional. Thagard argues that an understanding of emotional thinking needs to integrate the cognitive, neural, molecular, and social levels. Many of the chapters employ computational models of various levels of thinking, including HOTCO (hot cognition) models and the more neurologically realistic GAGE model. Thagard uses these models to illuminate thinking in the domains of law, science, and religion, discussing such topics as the role of doubt and reasonable doubt in legal and other contexts, valuable emotional habits for successful scientists, and the emotional content of religious beliefs. Identifying and assessing the impact of emotion, Thagard argues, can suggest ways to improve the process of reasoning.
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In Consciousness and Persons: Unity and Identity, Michael Tye takes on the thorny issue of the unity of consciousness and answers these important questions: What exactly is the unity of consciousness? Can a single person have a divided consciousness? What is a single person? Tye argues that unity is a ...
Consciousness and Persons: Unity and Identity
In Consciousness and Persons: Unity and Identity, Michael Tye takes on the thorny issue of the unity of consciousness and answers these important questions: What exactly is the unity of consciousness? Can a single person have a divided consciousness? What is a single person? Tye argues that unity is a fundamental part of human consciousness-something so basic to everyday experience that it is easy to overlook. For example, when we hear the sound of waves crashing on a beach and at the same time see a red warning flag, there is an overall unity to our experience; the sound and the red shape are presented together in our consciousness. Similarly, when we undergo a succession of thoughts as we think something through, there is an experience of succession that unifies the thoughts into a conscious whole. But, Tye shows, consciousness is not always unified. Split-brain subjects, whose corpus callosum has been severed, are usually taken to have a divided or disunified consciousness. Their behavior in certain situations implies that they have lost the unity normal human subjects take for granted; it is sometimes even supposed that a split-brain subject is really two persons. Tye begins his account by proposing an account of the unity of experience at a single time; this account is extended over the succeeding chapters to cover bodily sensations at a single time and perceptual experience, bodily sensations, conscious thoughts, and felt moods at a single time. Tye follows these chapters with a discussion of the unity of experience through time. Turning to the split-brain phenomenon, he proposes an account of the mental life of split-brain subjects and argues that certain facts about these subjects offer support for his theory of unity. Finally, addressing the topic of the nature of persons and personal identity, Tye finds the two great historical accounts-the ego theory and the bundle theory-lacking and he makes an alternative proposal. He includes an appendix on the general representational approach to consciousness and its many varieties, because of the relevance of representationalism to the theory of unity being adanced.
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