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Since the end of the Cold War, the consolidation of peace and security in south-eastern Europe has been one of the most complex and troublesome issues facing the international community. The sequence of conflicts in the Balkans has resulted in serious loss of life, economic collapse, and a number of ...
Strategic Rebellion: Ethnic Conflict in FYR Macedonia and the Balkans
Since the end of the Cold War, the consolidation of peace and security in south-eastern Europe has been one of the most complex and troublesome issues facing the international community. The sequence of conflicts in the Balkans has resulted in serious loss of life, economic collapse, and a number of controversial interventions, leading contemporary scholars to reconsider old perceptions about violent ethnic conflict. Drawing on a wealth of theoretical and empirical sources, this book tackles some of the prevailing questions on the root causes and management of ethnic conflict. Under what conditions do ethnic minorities become violent? How credible are the theories of relative deprivation and greed in explaining the outbreak of conflict? Is the use of coercive diplomacy a superior alternative to direct military forms of intervention? This book provides an analytical account of the socio-economic roots of ethnic conflict, the opportunities for violent mobilization and the success of strategic coercion in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and it also examines related developments in Kosovo and the Balkans.
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62.790000 USD
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Faced with the complexity of the current crisis experienced in a new manner by western countries within the globalisation process, this book provides a significant contribution both to an understanding of the mechanisms at the basis of these events and in proposing prospects for its positive evolution. The study investigates ...
A Social Market Economy and European Economic Monetary Union
Faced with the complexity of the current crisis experienced in a new manner by western countries within the globalisation process, this book provides a significant contribution both to an understanding of the mechanisms at the basis of these events and in proposing prospects for its positive evolution. The study investigates the new stage in the European integration process involving a transition from monetary union to economic union. The history of monetary unification is analysed from an economic and constitutional point of view and in the perspective of a new European social order, on the basis of the social market economy. An analogous approach is applied to the new stage in the integration process, the economic union. Three basic principles are analysed: zero inflation, zero deficit and zero debt as preconditions of development. A social market economy is the starting point for addressing these issues. The study ends with an analysis of the Atlantic dimension of a social market economy.
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71.610000 USD
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The aim of this publication is to disseminate some of the talks given at the International Conference on Economic, Business, Financial and Institutional Translation, which took place at the University of Alicante on 29-31 May 2014 and was organised by the University's Department of Translation and Interpreting. Spanish and international ...
Current Approaches to Business and Institutional Translation - Enfoques actuales en traduccion economica e institucional: Proceedings of the international conference on economic, business, financial and institutional translation - Actas del congreso inter
The aim of this publication is to disseminate some of the talks given at the International Conference on Economic, Business, Financial and Institutional Translation, which took place at the University of Alicante on 29-31 May 2014 and was organised by the University's Department of Translation and Interpreting. Spanish and international researchers, translator trainers, and trainee and professional translators gathered at the conference with the goal, among others, of finding out about new research trends in the field of business and institutional translation. Esta obra difunde a una serie de intervenciones que se sucedieron en el Congreso Internacional de Traduccion Economica, Comercial, Financiera e Institucional, celebrado en la Universidad de Alicante los dias 29-31 de mayo de 2014, y organizado por su Departamento de Traduccion e Interpretacion. Dicho congreso reunio a diversos investigadores nacionales e internacionales, asi como a diferentes formadores de traductores, traductores en formacion y profesionales de la traduccion, con el objetivo de, entre otras cosas, conocer las nuevas tendencias de investigacion en el ambito de la traduccion economica e institucional.
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100.280000 USD

Current Approaches to Business and Institutional Translation - Enfoques actuales en traduccion economica e institucional: Proceedings of the international conference on economic, business, financial and institutional translation - Actas del congreso inter

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What interpretation(s) do today's historians make of electrification? Electrification is a process which began almost a hundred and fifty years ago but which more than one billion men and women still do not have access to. This book displays the social diversity of the electric worlds and of the approaches ...
Electric Worlds / Mondes electriques: Creations, Circulations, Tensions, Transitions (19th-21st C.)
What interpretation(s) do today's historians make of electrification? Electrification is a process which began almost a hundred and fifty years ago but which more than one billion men and women still do not have access to. This book displays the social diversity of the electric worlds and of the approaches to their history. It updates the historical knowledge and shows the renewal of the historiography in both its themes and its approaches. Four questions about the passage to the electrical age are raised: which innovations or combination of innovations made this passage a reality? According to which networks and appropriation? Evolving thanks to which tensions and alliances? And resulting in which transition and accumulation? Quel(s) regard(s) les historiens d'aujourd'hui portent-ils sur l'electrification, processus engage il y a pres de cent cinquante ans mais auquel plus d'un milliard d'hommes et de femmes restent encore etrangers ? Le present volume rend compte de la diversite des mondes sociaux electriques et des manieres d'enqueter sur leur histoire. Il actualise les connaissances et temoigne du renouvellement de l'historiographie, dans ses objets et ses approches. Quatre points d'interrogation sur le basculement des societes dans l'age electrique jalonnent le volume : moyennant quelles creations ou combinaisons creatrices ? En vertu de quelles circulations et appropriations ? Selon quelles tensions et alliances ? Et produisant quelles transitions et accumulations ?
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90.350000 USD
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This book examines the Eurozone crisis and the possibility of fiscal and political union in Europe, with contributions from some of the most respected experts on these topics. The book explains the complex, multidimensional crises in competitiveness, fiscal matters, banking and politics. During the crisis Germany has been criticized for ...
Towards a Resilient Eurozone: Economic, Monetary and Fiscal Policies
This book examines the Eurozone crisis and the possibility of fiscal and political union in Europe, with contributions from some of the most respected experts on these topics. The book explains the complex, multidimensional crises in competitiveness, fiscal matters, banking and politics. During the crisis Germany has been criticized for misjudging the causes, focusing too much on fiscal deficits and insisting that the solution is fiscal consolidation and austerity. For many, especially those inspired by Keynesian economics, Germany has been seen as pushing the whole continent into a depression. By misjudging the causes of the crisis, insisting on widespread austerity, constraining the European central Bank (ECB) in its role of Lender of Last Resort for the sovereigns, rejecting the mutualization of Eurozone debt and providing financial help in small amounts and too late, Germany is perceived to be responsible for the possible break-up of the Eurozone. The aim of this book is to analyse whether this description, one that is shared by numerous policymakers, academics, pundits and opinion leaders, means that there is a lack of resilience in the Eurozone's economic, monetary and fiscal policies.
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73.820000 USD

Towards a Resilient Eurozone: Economic, Monetary and Fiscal Policies

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Business Improvement Districts bieten einen neuartigen Ansatz zur Starkung gewachsener Geschaftsbereiche, der die spezifschen Schwachen der in Deutschland bislang genutzten Instrumente uberwindet. Mittlerweile haben sechs Bundeslander entsprechende BID-Gesetze verabschiedet und es gibt mehr als 25 BIDs in Deutschland. Die BID-Idee stammt ursprunglich aus Nordamerika und ist ein geradezu idealtypisches Beispiel ...
Business Improvement Districts: Erfolgreicher Politikimport aus den USA?
Business Improvement Districts bieten einen neuartigen Ansatz zur Starkung gewachsener Geschaftsbereiche, der die spezifschen Schwachen der in Deutschland bislang genutzten Instrumente uberwindet. Mittlerweile haben sechs Bundeslander entsprechende BID-Gesetze verabschiedet und es gibt mehr als 25 BIDs in Deutschland. Die BID-Idee stammt ursprunglich aus Nordamerika und ist ein geradezu idealtypisches Beispiel fur die US-amerikanische Grundhaltung, sich selbst zu helfen, statt nach dem Staat zu rufen. Angesichts dieses Gegensatzes im Staatsverstandnis sowie weiterer gesellschaftlicher und oekonomischer Unterschiede zwischen den beiden Landern stellt sich die Frage: Warum konnten BIDs erfolgreich nach Deutschland importiert werden? Dazu werden im ersten Schritt zunachst die soziooekonomischen Rahmenbedingungen in den USA und Deutschland und die Einbettung von BIDs in ihrem jeweiligen Kontext analysiert. Aus dem Varieties of Capitalism -Ansatz wird dazu ein Vergleichsrahmen entwickelt. Im zweiten Schritt wird dieser mit Ansatzen des Politiktransfers verschrankt, um daraus Thesen ableiten zu koennen, die sich auch zur Erklarung des Transfers anderer Instrumente eignen. Die Arbeit liefert ausserdem erstmals einen UEberblick uber US-amerikanische BIDs und eine ausfuhrliche Darstellung des ersten deutschen BIDs in Hamburg.
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125.630000 USD
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This book challenges the notion of the separation between economics and theology. It explores relationships between the disciplines through the concept of salvation, focusing on the work of Adam Smith and G.W.F. Hegel. They wrote as the disciplinary boundaries between economics and theology were taking shape, and remain important figures ...
Economies of Salvation: Adam Smith and Hegel
This book challenges the notion of the separation between economics and theology. It explores relationships between the disciplines through the concept of salvation, focusing on the work of Adam Smith and G.W.F. Hegel. They wrote as the disciplinary boundaries between economics and theology were taking shape, and remain important figures in contemporary discussions. Illuminating the theological foundations of the economic ideas of these two main thinkers, this book enriches our understanding of issues related to salvation such as: sympathy and recognition; poverty and the state; the invisible hand and the cunning of reason; evil and scarcity and eschatology. Moreover, the book contributes to a broader understanding of salvation and provides a model for future dialogue between economists and theologians by extending the frontiers of this unexplored field of research.
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65.000000 USD
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This book, which is aimed at researchers in specialised varieties of English, provides an illustration of how linguists can use terms, i.e. the expression of concepts in specialised fields, as entry points to explore any specialised domain, whether academic or professional, and to get acquainted with its history, its culture, ...
Economic Terms and Beyond: Capitalising on the Wealth of Notions: How Researchers in Specialised Varieties of English Can Benefit from Focusing on Terms
This book, which is aimed at researchers in specialised varieties of English, provides an illustration of how linguists can use terms, i.e. the expression of concepts in specialised fields, as entry points to explore any specialised domain, whether academic or professional, and to get acquainted with its history, its culture, and the evolution of the ideas that have nurtured it. Choosing the field of economics as an example, the author approaches terms from a diachronic, descriptive and contextual perspective, focusing on neonyms, metaphorical, ambiguous or indeterminate terms, as well as interface terms likely to underscore the evolving character of the domain. The analysis points out the role of terms as milestones highlighting key discoveries that have shaped scientific fields; terms can also be considered as barometers of the evolution of knowledge in a specific field and of a changing social environment. Whoever thought terms were only interesting for their definitions or for translation purposes will no doubt be surprised at the insights that can be gained from considering them from a different angle and for other purposes.
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117.920000 USD
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This interdisciplinary book brings an empirical evidence that social capital is an important building block in the reintegration processes, migration challenges and economic dynamism of the SEE communities. Such a conclusion opposes the common belief that (re)establishing social relations in a post-ethnic conflict environment is difficult, or sometimes even impossible. ...
Social capital, migration, ethnic diversity and economic performance: Multidisciplinary evidence from South-East Europe
This interdisciplinary book brings an empirical evidence that social capital is an important building block in the reintegration processes, migration challenges and economic dynamism of the SEE communities. Such a conclusion opposes the common belief that (re)establishing social relations in a post-ethnic conflict environment is difficult, or sometimes even impossible. These are indeed societies where trust in people and institutions remains low, but it is often replaced with other forms of social capital emerging on a daily basis, within and between different population strata, either formally but often informally. Most people who know the region are aware that formal and state institutions in South-East Europe enjoy very low levels of trust. Nearly everybody loves to point to ethnicity as the causal factor behind every difficulty. The authors of this groundbreaking study explore two basic questions: how do people meet their needs and the needs of others when official institutions do not function? And how do members of different ethnic groups experience the role of others and cross symbolic boundaries? The answers, constructed out of empirical evidence using a variety of methods, point to the crucial importance of social capital as an everyday resource, and to the essential role of ethnic, national, and religious diversity in enhancing people's life chances in an unstable environment. Eric Gordy, Professor of Cultural and Political Sociology, University College London Since Mark Granovetter many of us know that both over-socialised (macro) level, and under-socialised (narrowly individualist) representations of social world may lead to counter-effective policies. We need to focus on the meso level, where social cooperation is the most real and the most productive. That leads us to the concept of social capital. This is something the authors of this book understand very well. Moreover, applying it, they are able to shed light on human behaviour in the context of the two key phenomena of present day Europe: migration and capacity for self-help during the crises. Great research questions and contribution. Tomasz Mickiewicz, Professor at Aston University and Honorary Research Fellow at University College London
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72.710000 USD
Hardback
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At present, many companies consider knowledge the most important element and the benchmark for maintaining an enduring competitive advantage. The process of strategically acquiring both new boundaries knowledge and convergence knowledge to generate boundaries innovation becomes an important element in acquiring dynamic organizational capability. This is essential for rapidly establishing ...
Winning Through Boundaries Innovation: Communities of Boundaries Generate Convergence
At present, many companies consider knowledge the most important element and the benchmark for maintaining an enduring competitive advantage. The process of strategically acquiring both new boundaries knowledge and convergence knowledge to generate boundaries innovation becomes an important element in acquiring dynamic organizational capability. This is essential for rapidly establishing a company's market position in new markets and technologies. This book discusses from a micro-viewpoint different strategies for companies' sustainable generation of boundaries innovation through the creation of both types of knowledge. It focuses on strategic management activities centered on innovation processes (incremental innovation and radical innovation) in a company. In the future, the knowledge convergence processes practiced by individuals, groups and organizations inside and outside the company will form the basis of dynamic innovation activities. These will continually create new boundaries knowledge and convergence knowledge, as well as the organizational capability for supporting these. The knowledge convergence firm this book proposes is a new corporate model that achieves sustainable boundaries knowledge by promoting creative, productive friction among people, and between and amongst communities. It does this by implementing knowledge convergence processes at diverse boundaries within and outside the company.
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79.330000 USD
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This book addresses ethical and spiritual issues in economics. The central idea advanced in the book is that the extreme focus on the self by economic actors leads to the destruction of both material and non-material values. The assumptions of self-interest in behavior represent the core of mainstream economics today. ...
Beyond Self: Ethical and Spiritual Dimensions of Economics
This book addresses ethical and spiritual issues in economics. The central idea advanced in the book is that the extreme focus on the self by economic actors leads to the destruction of both material and non-material values. The assumptions of self-interest in behavior represent the core of mainstream economics today. From this perspective, the welfare of economic agents depends on their own consumption; their goal is to maximize their own welfare; and their choice is guided by the pursuit of their own goals. Throughout the book the author argues that self-interest-based actions and policies have a detrimental impact on nature, future generations, and society at large. If we want to survive and flourish in the material world we have to transcend the self and embrace wholeness. This value shift requires enormous changes in economics, politics and social life, but there may not be any other option in light of the current state of ecological degradation and human suffering.
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73.820000 USD
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Over the last two decades, globalisation has accelerated international migration flows, particularly of skilled labour. Yet increasing migration by skilled workers from developing countries ( brain drain ) has raised serious concerns internationally about the adverse development impact on their countries of origin. This book, however, highlights the positive aspects ...
Scientific diasporas as development partners: Skilled migrants from Colombia, India and South Africa in Switzerland: empirical evidence and policy responses- Preface by Jean-Baptiste Meyer
Over the last two decades, globalisation has accelerated international migration flows, particularly of skilled labour. Yet increasing migration by skilled workers from developing countries ( brain drain ) has raised serious concerns internationally about the adverse development impact on their countries of origin. This book, however, highlights the positive aspects of skilled labour migration as scientific diasporas are playing a growing role in the transfer of technology, skills and knowledge ( brain gain ) to their home countries. This is a very significant development in a globalised world where science, technology and knowledge can trigger economic and social transformations. The book presents solid empirical evidence of the contributions scientific diasporas make to their countries of origin, based on primary surveys of skilled migrants from Colombia, India and South Africa employed in Switzerland, a major destination country. The findings lead to a better understanding of the motives for migration, the profile of the scientific diaspora communities in Switzerland, and the varied ways in which they help their home countries. The book makes a significant contribution to the international policy debate and dialogue on migration and development. In particular, it shows how to leverage the potential of scientific diasporas as agents of home country development, by identifying good practices and offering specific recommendations for the countries of origin and of destination.
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149.890000 USD
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Historiography of child labour has often been characterized by strong biases, leading to an overemphasis on the aberrations of factory work as well as to the stereotyping of child work, with industrializing England as the dominant model. This collection of articles offers a global perspective, including both national and comparative ...
Child Labour's Global Past, 1650-2000
Historiography of child labour has often been characterized by strong biases, leading to an overemphasis on the aberrations of factory work as well as to the stereotyping of child work, with industrializing England as the dominant model. This collection of articles offers a global perspective, including both national and comparative case studies which cover all continents and thus overcomes such biases in child labour history. It focuses on various sectors of the economy: industrial work is highlighted and so are the important activities of children in agriculture. Furthermore, Child Labour's Global Past, 1650-2000 is intended to give a long-term historical perspective, in covering the importance of children's work in pre-industrial and industrial societies, both in colonial and non- or post-colonial settings. A long-term global approach to the history of child labour is desirable. As child labour was - and still is - a social phenomenon which can only be properly understood in its historical context, the varying historical experiences over the world can not only enlighten us about the specific function of child labour, but also about its causes, and therewith about possible solutions of child labour today.
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143.270000 USD
Hardback
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Where is our economy heading? Have we lost something valuable in the human quest for efficiency and perpetual growth? What human qualities are being eroded as we rely on the modern market mechanism to coordinate our daily lives? This book poses a theological challenge to contemporary economic life through a ...
The Two Pillars of the Market: A Paradigm for Dialogue between Theology and Economics
Where is our economy heading? Have we lost something valuable in the human quest for efficiency and perpetual growth? What human qualities are being eroded as we rely on the modern market mechanism to coordinate our daily lives? This book poses a theological challenge to contemporary economic life through a re-discovery of the historical roots of the theological covenant in society. The author places the covenant in contrast with the contract, exploring the distinction between the two concepts, their significance and their interaction in the economic market. The result is a new proposal - the `Two Pillars' paradigm - that challenges the fundamentals of modern economics and promotes the idea of a balanced market which allows for genuine human relationships, freedom and economic justice. The author illustrates the practical use of the paradigm through the example of long-term employment arrangements, and applies it as a basis for dialogue with scholars ranging from Adam Smith to modern-day economists.
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72.710000 USD
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This book discusses the emergence of a multi-polar currency system. With the US Dollar's hegemony as global reserve currency in question, it examines the role of the Federal Reserve in its decline, the emergence of the Euro in a multi-polar currency system and the Chinese influence in this most important ...
The Global Currencies Conundrum
This book discusses the emergence of a multi-polar currency system. With the US Dollar's hegemony as global reserve currency in question, it examines the role of the Federal Reserve in its decline, the emergence of the Euro in a multi-polar currency system and the Chinese influence in this most important policy arena. China's concerns about its US Dollar reserves are being amplified by the low returns of some of its investments in the United States. Today's reserve currency system effectively results in China lending to the US at very low interest rates. China needs to diversify out of the Dollar and it is this monetary policy that will fundamentally change the global currency scenario. China has been supportive of the Euro since its creation and is also lending support to the IMF's special drawing rights. At the same time, Chinese policy targets the internationalisation of the Renminbi and with that the creation of a multi-polar monetary order.
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59.480000 USD
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A partir des annees 1880, l'electricite est progressivement devenue une technologie centrale, qui va procurer des biens et assurer des services nouveaux, bouleversant ainsi la production industrielle, l'economie et les pratiques sociales et culturelles. De confidentiel, son usage ne cessera de s'etendre, devenant massif et planetaire, et aujourd'hui indispensable jusqu'aux ...
Des ingenieurs pour un monde nouveau: Histoire des enseignements electrotechniques (Europe, Ameriques) - XIXe-XXe siecle
A partir des annees 1880, l'electricite est progressivement devenue une technologie centrale, qui va procurer des biens et assurer des services nouveaux, bouleversant ainsi la production industrielle, l'economie et les pratiques sociales et culturelles. De confidentiel, son usage ne cessera de s'etendre, devenant massif et planetaire, et aujourd'hui indispensable jusqu'aux details de la vie quotidienne. Pour fonder et deployer un systeme de production, de transport et de distribution efficaces de l'electricite dans tous les pays, pour concevoir, fabriquer et diffuser les machines, outils et objets divers fonctionnant par ce moyen, en somme pour former un monde nouveau, il faut former un corps de techniciens specialises : ce seront les ingenieurs electriciens, pour lesquels seront elabores et mis en uvre des cursus dedies. Cet ouvrage retrace la naissance et la croissance de ces formations, a partir de la fin du XIXe siecle, en Europe et sur le continent americain, et leur role dans le developpement des differents Etats. Issu des travaux d'un colloque international tenu a Prague, il rassemble les contributions de 28 historiens portant sur 15 pays.
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68.300000 USD
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This book contends that the massacre of civilians in Beijing on June Fourth 1989 was a pivotal rupture in both Chinese and world history. If not for that day, China's socioeconomic, political and cultural landscape would not have undergone the kind of dramatic transformation that has made China rich but ...
Tiananmen redux: The hard truth about the expanded neoliberal world order
This book contends that the massacre of civilians in Beijing on June Fourth 1989 was a pivotal rupture in both Chinese and world history. If not for that day, China's socioeconomic, political and cultural landscape would not have undergone the kind of dramatic transformation that has made China rich but unequal, open but hyper-nationalist, moralistic but immoral and unhappy. Through the lens of global history the book revisits the drama of Tiananmen and demonstrates how it unfolded, ended, and ultimately how that ending - in a consensus of forgetting - came to shape the world of the 21st century. It offers a theorization on the inclusion of China into global capitalism and argues that the planetary project of neoliberalism has been prolonged by China's market reforms. This has resulted in an ongoing convergence of economic and authoritarian political practices that transcend otherwise contrasting political systems. With China's growing global influence, the late leader Deng Xiaoping's statement that development is a hard truth increasingly conveys the logic of our contemporary world.
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107.990000 USD
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Cette approche inedite de Madame Bovary souligne les points de convergence entre l'economie politique et la litterature. Selon cette optique, le texte de Flaubert ne parle pas tant de l'economie qu'il ne parle l'economie: certaines lois regissant le liberalisme structurent aussi les metaphores textuelles. Flaubert donne a lire une societe ...
Fiction Et Faillite: Economie Et Metaphores Dans Madame Bovary
Cette approche inedite de Madame Bovary souligne les points de convergence entre l'economie politique et la litterature. Selon cette optique, le texte de Flaubert ne parle pas tant de l'economie qu'il ne parle l'economie: certaines lois regissant le liberalisme structurent aussi les metaphores textuelles. Flaubert donne a lire une societe utilitaire au sein de laquelle l'heroine, Emma, refuse d'etre constituee selon la thematique du calcul previsionnel. Sa fuite dans un imaginaire de gratuite echoue cependant et ses tentatives se reduisent le plus souvent a l'achat de desirs sur le marche des echanges. La prodigalite d'Emma n'est qu'une aspiration falsifiee a une vie aristocratique dans une societe ou la bourgeoisie triomphe par l'accumulation et le profit.
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59.800000 USD
Hardback
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Ausgehend von der Pramisse einer Diskursgemeinschaft zwischen Literaten und Okonomen stellt sich die Frage nach dem Wirkungszusammenhang zwischen der literarischen Moderne und dem Keynes'schen Paradigmawechsel in der Nationalokonomie. Ein Textvergleich zwischen Eliot und Keynes offenbart rhetorische Parallelen bei der Simulierung wirtschaftlicher Kausalbeziehungen durch syntaktische Kontiguitatsrelationen. In pragmatischer Hinsicht kommensuriert die ...
Der Literat ALS Vermittler Oekonomischer Theorie: T.S. Eliot Im -Criterion-, L922-L939: (Literary Man on Economics: T.S. Eliot in the -Criterion-, L922-L939)
Ausgehend von der Pramisse einer Diskursgemeinschaft zwischen Literaten und Okonomen stellt sich die Frage nach dem Wirkungszusammenhang zwischen der literarischen Moderne und dem Keynes'schen Paradigmawechsel in der Nationalokonomie. Ein Textvergleich zwischen Eliot und Keynes offenbart rhetorische Parallelen bei der Simulierung wirtschaftlicher Kausalbeziehungen durch syntaktische Kontiguitatsrelationen. In pragmatischer Hinsicht kommensuriert die symbolisch indexierte Schreibweise beider Autoren mit den heterodoxen Theorien der Merkantilisten. Entgegen den Pramissen des Utilitarismus vertreten sie das wirtschaftspolitische Primat der Wirtschaftsethik.
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90.250000 USD
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Membre fondateur du Mouvement Europeen, La Ligue Europeenne de Cooperation Economique (LECE) est nee en 1946 sous le nom de Ligue Independante de Cooperation Europeenne (LICE) a l'initiative du Belge Paul Van Zeeland et du Polonais Joseph Retinger. Souvent qualifiee de -mouvement de banquiers-, la Ligue, durant la tres longue ...
La Ligue Europeenne de Cooperation Economique (1946-1981): Un Groupe D'Etude Et de Pression Dans La Construction Europeenne
Membre fondateur du Mouvement Europeen, La Ligue Europeenne de Cooperation Economique (LECE) est nee en 1946 sous le nom de Ligue Independante de Cooperation Europeenne (LICE) a l'initiative du Belge Paul Van Zeeland et du Polonais Joseph Retinger. Souvent qualifiee de -mouvement de banquiers-, la Ligue, durant la tres longue presidence (1950-1981) du comte Rene Boel, a demontre qu'accueillante pour les banquiers, elle l'avait aussi ete pour les industriels, le grand commerce, voire les representants de syndicats afin de servir d'organe de reflexion sur la construction europeenne. La Ligue, qui n'a rien d'un mouvement de masse, a mis au point une methode de travail par cercles concentriques qui lui a indubitablement permis de jouer un grand role au niveau de la maturation de la decision dans les instances communautaires. Sans pour autant parler de l'histoire d'un lobby, c'est malgre tout de l'histoire d'un groupe de pression intellectuel dont il est question dans ce livre.
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97.600000 USD
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Une grande affaire du premier semestre 1949 est le Pacte atlantique. Parallelement la mise sur pied de l'Allemagne occidentale bat son plein, autour de la question de la Loi fondamentale de la future RFA. Les deux dossiers sont etroitement lies; la France doit definitivement revoir sa politique allemande, mais on ...
Documents Diplomatiques Francais: 1949 - Tome I (1er Janvier - 30 Juin)
Une grande affaire du premier semestre 1949 est le Pacte atlantique. Parallelement la mise sur pied de l'Allemagne occidentale bat son plein, autour de la question de la Loi fondamentale de la future RFA. Les deux dossiers sont etroitement lies; la France doit definitivement revoir sa politique allemande, mais on admet desormais que la priorite, c'est la resistance face a l'URSS ; il faut empecher celle-ci d'utiliser l'Allemagne. Le but n'est plus de morceler l'Allemagne, mais de l'incorporer dans un systeme de securite occidental. Autre grand souci: l'Indochine. On suit les negociations complexes avec l'empereur Bao Dai. On parvient cependant aux accords du 8 mars 1949. Paris se montre tres restrictif et frileux. Mais on s'inquiete des repercussions en Indochine de la defaite de Tchang Kai Tchek face aux communistes chinois. Cependant les Etats-Unis commencent, en raison de cette inquietude, a mieux comprendre la position francaise a l'egard du probleme indochinois. Decidement la politique exterieure francaise entre dans une nouvelle phase.
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Imperceptiblement, les annees 1960 s'eloignent et le decor des annees 1970 est deja plante dans ce second semestre: en Europe, la detente se substitue a la guerre froide; a la confrontation Est/Ouest succedent les tensions entre le Nord et le Sud. Le representant francais a l'ONU note tres justement que ...
Documents Diplomatiques Francais: 1970 - Tome II (1er Juillet - 31 Decembre)
Imperceptiblement, les annees 1960 s'eloignent et le decor des annees 1970 est deja plante dans ce second semestre: en Europe, la detente se substitue a la guerre froide; a la confrontation Est/Ouest succedent les tensions entre le Nord et le Sud. Le representant francais a l'ONU note tres justement que la 25e session de l'ONU a ete marquee par une revolte des petits contre les grands . Les pays du Sud decouvrent rapidement la force de l'action solidaire. Une autre caracteristique des annees 1970, deja presente a cette periode, est la violence qui se manifeste sous la forme du terrorisme au Quebec, dont le retentissement en France est enorme, et de la revolte des Palestiniens de Jordanie, reprimee par le roi Hussein. Dans ce contexte international renouvele ou en voie de l'etre, comment la diplomatie francaise se situe-t-elle ? En Europe, elle est confrontee a un double defi: le premier est le succes de l'Ostpolitik du chancelier W. Brandt. Le deuxieme defi est celui de l'elargissement de la Communaute economique europeenne. Dans le monde, le representant francais a l'ONU a beau estimer que la France a une position morale exceptionnelle , une audience non negligeable , la realite telle qu'elle ressort des telegrammes des postes est plus nuancee. En Afrique sub-saharienne, la France est malmenee par ses anciennes colonies ou consideree comme une simple pourvoyeuse de credits. Au Moyen-Orient, bien que le retrait britannique a l'est d'Aden ouvre un espace a la France, qui en profite pour s'implanter dans la region, la diplomatie francaise est surtout spectatrice. En Asie, la France ne peut que deplorer l'impasse des negociations americano-vietnamiennes, la poursuite de la guerre, la reprise des bombardements americains sur le Nord Vietnam, et meme l'extension du conflit au Cambodge.
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L'essentiel du premier semestre 1948 concerne l'aggravation de la situation en Europe orientale ( coup de Prague en particulier), la deterioration acceleree des relations Est-Ouest avec l'entree desormais evidente dans la Guerre froide, les premieres reactions des Europeens de l'Ouest (Pacte de Bruxelles), le debut de l'organisation du monde occidental ...
Documents Diplomatiques Francais: 1948 - Tome I (1er Janvier - 30 Juin)
L'essentiel du premier semestre 1948 concerne l'aggravation de la situation en Europe orientale ( coup de Prague en particulier), la deterioration acceleree des relations Est-Ouest avec l'entree desormais evidente dans la Guerre froide, les premieres reactions des Europeens de l'Ouest (Pacte de Bruxelles), le debut de l'organisation du monde occidental (mise en place effective du European Recovery Program, premieres reflexions et demarches en vue de ce qui sera en 1949 l'Alliance atlantique, conference de Londres lancant le processus qui aboutira l'annee suivante a la creation de la Republique federale d'Allemagne) et le debut de la reaction sovietique face a ce raidissement occidental au moyen du blocus de Berlin. La France joue pleinement son role dans toutes ces affaires, tout en s'efforcant de maintenir deux objectifs essentiels de sa politique: que l'evolution de la question allemande ne remette pas en cause sa securite et ses moyens de controle par rapport a l'Allemagne, et que les Occidentaux en general, et en particulier les Americains, ne durcissent pas davantage la situation en reagissant de facon excessive face a Moscou. En meme temps, on voit apparaitre ce qui allait constituer les deux axes majeurs de la politique de la IVe Republique: la construction europeenne comme un cadre pour permettre a la France de controler l'evolution de l'Allemagne; et l'idee que, si les Etats-Unis veulent relever le defi sovietique, en prenant le risque de graves tensions, ils doivent alors s'engager concretement pour garantir la securite de l'Europe occidentale. En effet, des le mois d'avril, en liaison avec l'evolution du probleme allemand a la conference de Londres, ou les Trois Occidentaux se dirigent de plus en plus vers la creation d'un Etat allemand, l'hypothese d'une reaction sovietique a Berlin est evoquee, ce qui pose la question du type d'appui que Washington serait dispose a apporter a l'Europe occidentale. A partir de la, le theme de la defense de l'Europe, dans le cadre du pacte de Bruxelles et avec l'appui americain, prend une importance considerable. A partir de la fin mai, la strategie du Quai d'Orsay est de conseiller au gouvernement de monnayer aupres des Anglo-Saxons la fusion des zones et la creation d'un Etat ouest-allemand contre la mise sur pied d'un systeme de defense du monde occidental.
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La Premiere Guerre mondiale et les annees 1920 constituent un moment charniere dans l'economie mondiale. La destabilisation du commerce international, des mouvements de capitaux et des changes fait comprendre aux divers acteurs concernes que l'economie internationale n'est pas seulement la juxtaposition d'economies nationales, dont une main invisible assurerait l'interaction harmonieuse ...
La Societe Des Nations Et La Naissance d'Une Conception de la Regulation Economique Internationale
La Premiere Guerre mondiale et les annees 1920 constituent un moment charniere dans l'economie mondiale. La destabilisation du commerce international, des mouvements de capitaux et des changes fait comprendre aux divers acteurs concernes que l'economie internationale n'est pas seulement la juxtaposition d'economies nationales, dont une main invisible assurerait l'interaction harmonieuse en faisant en sorte que les politiques de regulation locales concourent a un ordre general. Des avant 1914, l'existence d'une economie internationale avait ete envisagee. Il reste cependant que les experts economiques et financiers oeuvrant au sein de la Societe des Nations ont eu un role privilegie dans cette construction intellectuelle et politique. Par le principe meme de leur institution, ils ont du concevoir l'idee d'un interet et d'un ordre economique depassant les interets particuliers. En se penchant sur l'Organisation Economique et Financiere de la SDN, ce livre montre la prise de conscience de l'existence d'une interaction dans l'economie internationale ainsi que les efforts effectues pour gerer cette realite. Il permet ainsi de comprendre l'importance de cette experience de l'entre-deux-guerres dans le developpement de la regulation economique internationale au XXe siecle.
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La proposition d'aide a l'Europe formulee par le general Marshall le 5 juin continue a occuper au cours du second semestre de 1947 le devant de la scene. Il est tout de suite evident que l'on se dirige vers la coupure du continent en deux. Mais une fois le principe ...
Documents Diplomatiques Francais: 1947 - Tome II (1er Juillet - 31 Decembre)
La proposition d'aide a l'Europe formulee par le general Marshall le 5 juin continue a occuper au cours du second semestre de 1947 le devant de la scene. Il est tout de suite evident que l'on se dirige vers la coupure du continent en deux. Mais une fois le principe de l'aide Marshall admis, de nombreux problemes se posent. La question allemande est egalement liee au plan Marshall: la France doit-elle accepter ou pas de fusionner sa zone avec les deux autres zones occidentales ? Il devient rapidement evident, pour la plupart des responsables, qu'il n'y a pas d'autre solution realiste, meme si on se garde bien de le proclamer. Le choix occidental de la France est desormais clair. L'un des apports majeurs de ce volume est de demontrer que le rapprochement franco-britannique manifeste par le traite de Dunkerque n'a pas ete qu'un feu de paille mais a lance une reelle phase de cooperation. Les affaires du monde arabo-musulman preoccupent toujours davantage Paris. Mais bien entendu c'est la question de la Palestine qui domine. La formule du partage suscite a Paris de serieux doutes, meme si certains estiment qu'il s'agit de la moins mauvaise solution, mais finalement la France decide de se rallier a la majorite lors du vote a l'ONU du 28 novembre. Mais une grande affaire reste l'Asie. En Indochine, on conclut avec Bao Dai la declaration de la Baie d'Along, le 6 decembre. Cette declaration est ambigue. A Paris les reactions sont diverses. Les services du Quai paraissent penser, a la difference du gouvernement, que cette declaration est si favorable a la France qu'elle n'a aucune chance d'amener les partisans de Ho Chi Minh a se separer de lui et a rallier Bao Dai. Le decor de la guerre d'Indochine etait desormais definitivement en place.
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Les deux gros dossiers du deuxieme semestre 1968 sont ceux de la crise monetaire et de la crise tchecoslovaque. A la suite des evenements de mai 1968, la situation monetaire francaise s'est considerablement deterioree: alors que tout le monde s'attend a une devaluation du franc, le general de Gaulle decide ...
Documents Diplomatiques Francais: 1968 - Tome II (2 Juillet - 31 Decembre)
Les deux gros dossiers du deuxieme semestre 1968 sont ceux de la crise monetaire et de la crise tchecoslovaque. A la suite des evenements de mai 1968, la situation monetaire francaise s'est considerablement deterioree: alors que tout le monde s'attend a une devaluation du franc, le general de Gaulle decide de ne pas devaluer. Le Quai d'Orsay justifie cette decision approuvee par les amis de la France comme la Cote d'Ivoire et l'Iran. Meme les Sovietiques sont disposes a apporter leur soutien; en revanche, les Britanniques comme les Allemands sont sceptiques et estiment que la France devra, a terme, devaluer. Mais c'est de tres loin la Tchecoslovaquie qui retient l'attention. Des le premier semestre, la crise se profile. Au deuxieme semestre, les diplomates francais en poste a Prague rendent compte au jour le jour de l'evolution de la crise: le 11 juillet, la sous-direction d'Europe orientale estime que la menace de l'installation d'un regime liberal en Tchecoslovaquie est telle pour Moscou que l'action de force est possible. Puis vient le drame: l'invasion des troupes du Pacte de Varsovie connue le 21 aout par un communique d'une station de radio de l'armee tchecoslovaque et le message de Dubcek diffuse par Radio-Prague, qui se tait a 7 h. 47: il vous prie de supporter dignement la situation et d'avoir confiance . S'ajoutent a cela l'instauration d'un pouvoir soumis aux forces d'occupation, les incidents et les protestations contre l'occupation sovietique, justifiee par l'ambassadeur Zorine, et soutenue par l'Algerie, l'Irak et la Syrie. Quant a la position francaise, elle joue au grand ecart: le Ministre demande d'abord a l'ambassadeur Olivier Wormser de faire savoir que l'action sovietique [...] est inspiree par une conception de la vie internationale que la France n'a cesse de reprouver et que, neanmoins, la France reste attachee a la politique de detente, d'entente et de cooperation . L'attitude francaise s'exprime aussi par le biais d'un telegramme circulaire du ministre des Affaires etrangeres prescrivant de prendre quelques distances sur le plan politique mais de ne rien modifier sur les autres plans afin de developper la detente . Quant au general de Gaulle, il rappelle a cette occasion son hostilite aux accords de Yalta, conclus en l'absence de la France, qui avaient selon lui divise l'Europe en deux.
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