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Strengthening Argentina's integration into the global economy: policy proposals for trade, investment, and competition
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39.380000 USD

Strengthening Argentina's integration into the global economy: policy proposals for trade, investment, and competition

by Martha Martanez Licetti, World Bank
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Growing smarter: learning and equitable development in East Asia and Pacific
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65.69 USD

Growing smarter: learning and equitable development in East Asia and Pacific

by World Bank
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Jobs from agriculture in Afghanistan
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39.380000 USD

Jobs from agriculture in Afghanistan

by Mansur Ahmed, World Bank, Izabela Leao
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Transforming Karachi into a livable and competitive megacity: a city diagnostic and transformation strategy
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41.950000 USD

Transforming Karachi into a livable and competitive megacity: a city diagnostic and transformation strategy

by World Bank
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The World Bank's compilation of statistics from over 200 economies is built around World Development Indicators (WDI) - selected indicators have been identified and visualized to analyze trends and challenges, and to catalyze discussion on measurement issues. The Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2017 uses maps, charts and analysis to ...
Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2017: from World Development Indicators
The World Bank's compilation of statistics from over 200 economies is built around World Development Indicators (WDI) - selected indicators have been identified and visualized to analyze trends and challenges, and to catalyze discussion on measurement issues. The Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2017 uses maps, charts and analysis to illustrate, trends, challenges and measurement issues related to each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Given the breadth and scope of the SDGs, the editors have been selective, emphasizing issues considered important by experts in the World Bank's Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas. Nevertheless, The Atlas aims to reflect the breadth of the Goals themselves and presents national and regional trends and snapshots of progress towards the UN's seventeen Sustainable Development Goals: poverty, hunger, health, education, gender, water, energy, jobs, infrastructure, inequalities, cities, consumption, climate, oceans, the environment, peace, institutions, and partnerships. Between 1990 and 2013, nearly one billion people were raised out of extreme poverty. Its elimination is now a realistic prospect, although this will require both sustained growth and reduced inequality. Even then, gender inequalities continue to hold back human potential
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31.450000 USD

Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2017: from World Development Indicators

by World Bank
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Cities in Sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing rapid population growth. Yet their economic growth has not kept pace. Why? One factor might be low capital investment, due in part to Africa s relative poverty. Other regions have reached similar stages of urbanization at higher per capita GDP. This study, however, identifies ...
Africa's cities: opening doors to the world
Cities in Sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing rapid population growth. Yet their economic growth has not kept pace. Why? One factor might be low capital investment, due in part to Africa s relative poverty. Other regions have reached similar stages of urbanization at higher per capita GDP. This study, however, identifies a deeper reason: African cities are closed to the world. Compared with other developing cities, cities in Africa produce few goods and services for trade on regional and international markets. To grow economically as they are growing in size, Africa s cities must open their doors to the world. They need to specialize in manufacturing, along with other regionally and globally tradable goods and services. And to attract global investment in tradables production, cities must develop scale economies, which are associated with successful urban economic development in other regions. Such scale economies can arise in Africa if city and country leaders make concerted efforts to bring agglomeration effects to urban areas. Today, potential urban investors look at Africa and see crowded, disconnected, and costly cities which inspire low expectations for the scale of urban production and for returns on invested capital. How can these cities become economically dense not merely crowded? How can they acquire efficient connections and draw firms and skilled workers with a more affordable, livable urban environment? From a policy standpoint, the answer must be to address the structural problems affecting African cities. Foremost among these problems are institutional and regulatory constraints that misallocate land and labor, fragment physical development, and limit productivity. As long as African cities lack functioning land markets and regulations and early, coordinated infrastructure investments, they will remain local cities: closed to regional and global markets, trapped into producing only locally traded goods and services, and limited in their economic growth
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36.750000 USD

Africa's cities: opening doors to the world

by Anthony J. Venables, J. Vernon Henderson, World Bank, Somik Vinay Lall
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Central America is undergoing an important transition. Urban populations are increasing at accelerated speeds, bringing pressing challenges for development, as well as opportunities to boost sustained, inclusive and resilient growth. Today, 59 percent of the region's population lives in urban areas, but it is expected that 7 out of 10 ...
Central America urbanization review: making cities work for Central America
Central America is undergoing an important transition. Urban populations are increasing at accelerated speeds, bringing pressing challenges for development, as well as opportunities to boost sustained, inclusive and resilient growth. Today, 59 percent of the region's population lives in urban areas, but it is expected that 7 out of 10 people will live in cities within the next generation. At current rates of urbanisation, Central America's urban population will double in size by 2050, welcoming over 25 million new urban dwellers calling for better infrastructure, higher coverage and quality of urban services and greater employment opportunities. With more people concentrated in urban areas, Central American governments at the national and local levels face both opportunities and challenges to ensure the prosperity of their country's present and future generations. The Central America Urbanization Review: Making Cities Work for Central America provides a better understanding of the trends and implications of urbanization in the six Central American countries - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama - and the actions that central and local governments can take to reap the intended benefits of this transformation. The report makes recommendations on how urban policies can contribute to addressing the main development challenges the region currently faces such as lack of social inclusion, high vulnerability to natural disasters, and lack of economic opportunities and competitiveness. Specifically, the report focuses on four priority areas for Central American cities: institutions for city management, access to adequate and well-located housing, resilience to natural disasters, and competitiveness through local economic development. This book is written for national and local policymakers, private sector actors, civil society, researchers and development partners in Central America and all around the world interested in learning more about the opportunities that urbanization brings in the 21st century.
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41.950000 USD

Central America urbanization review: making cities work for Central America

by World Bank
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With rapid urbanization and an increasing number of publicly funded urban projects, there is a growing demand to address complex land acquisition and involuntary resettlement issues in urban settings. Major urban projects in such areas as urban development, renewal or upgrading, urban transport, urban watershed management, water supply and sanitation, ...
Urban land acquisition and involuntary resettlement: linking innovation and local benefits
With rapid urbanization and an increasing number of publicly funded urban projects, there is a growing demand to address complex land acquisition and involuntary resettlement issues in urban settings. Major urban projects in such areas as urban development, renewal or upgrading, urban transport, urban watershed management, water supply and sanitation, and urban solid waste management require substantial land acquisition and resettlement efforts that raise significantrisks to people and investments. Governments and international financing institutions must identify these risks early and manage them adequately. These issues are amplified by global trends, such as the degradation of the natural resource base and climate change. The selection of case studies in this report came about as a result of discussions within the community of World Bank involuntary resettlement practitioners, who agreed that urban resettlement issues remain relatively unexplored and that the greatest need for examples of innovative practices in resettlement was in urban settings.
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36.750000 USD

Urban land acquisition and involuntary resettlement: linking innovation and local benefits

by Vincent Roquet, World Bank
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This book, produced jointly by the World Bank, the University of California, Berkeley, and the WHO, aims to provide decision-makers at sub-national, national, regional and global levels with additional insights into how to address their workforce challenges rather than describe them. In order to optimise and align HRH investments and ...
Health labor market analyses in low- and middle-income countries: an evidence-based approach
This book, produced jointly by the World Bank, the University of California, Berkeley, and the WHO, aims to provide decision-makers at sub-national, national, regional and global levels with additional insights into how to address their workforce challenges rather than describe them. In order to optimise and align HRH investments and develop targeted policy responses, a thorough understanding of unique, country-specific labour market dynamics and determinants of these dynamics is critical. Policies need to take into account the fact that workers are economic actors, responsive to different levels of compensation and opportunities to generate revenue found in different sub-labour markets. Policies need to take into account the behavioural characteristics of the individuals who provide health care, but also the individuals who consume health care services and the institutions that employ health personnel. In other words, it is necessary to understand the determinants of both the supply (numbers of health workers willing to work in the health sector) and the demand for health workers (resources available to hire health workers), how these interact, and how this interaction varies in different contexts. This interaction will determine the availability of health personnel, their distribution as well as their performance levels, thus ensuring stronger health systems capable to deliver universal health coverage. The book is structured to be of use to researchers, planners, and economists who are tasked with analysing key areas of health labour markets, including overall labour market assessments as well as and more narrow and targeted analyses of demand and supply (including production and migration), performance, and remuneration of health workers. The chapters, written by a number of internationally renowned experts on Human Resources for Health, discuss data sources and empirical tools that can be used to assess health labor markets across high-, middle- or low-income countries, but draws primarily from examples and case-studies in LMICs.
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41.950000 USD

Health labor market analyses in low- and middle-income countries: an evidence-based approach

by World Bank
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Investments in education across countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have transformed the lives of millions of girls and the prospects of their families and societies. Unleashing the full economic potential of women is nevertheless still a curtailed issue in the region: just about half of women are unable ...
Cashing in on education: women, childcare, and prosperity in Latin America and the Caribbean
Investments in education across countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have transformed the lives of millions of girls and the prospects of their families and societies. Unleashing the full economic potential of women is nevertheless still a curtailed issue in the region: just about half of women are unable to participate in paid work. The majority of the population out of the labour market is women between the ages of 24 and 45. This is the largest share of the available pool of unused human capital countries have, and where mothers of young children are concentrated. This book argues that more and better childcare constitutes a fundamental policy option to improve female outcomes in the labour market, but countries need to pay particular attention to the design and features of such services. First-rate educational programs will be useless if children are not enrolled or do not attend formal education centers. A large program expansion will be wasted if parents cannot enroll their children because they are unable to reach the center, don't trust its quality, if the program is too expensive, or if work and care schedules are not compatible. Through an integrated framework applied to each country and an overview of the existing evidence, this book addresses the why and what questions about policy relevant instruments to achieve female labour participation. Parts I and II of the book lay out the motivation for Latin-American and Caribbean countries to act depicting their current situation both in terms of women's labor participation and the use and provision of childcare services. Moreover, this book tackles the how question contributing to the incipient evidence about factors affecting the take-up of programs and demand for childcare services and other informal care arrangements. Part III of the book explores how to improve services and implement more and better formal, center-based care arrangements for young children. It looks at international benchmarks, discusses different experiences and proposes specific actions to solve potential inequalities in access to childcare.
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41.950000 USD

Cashing in on education: women, childcare, and prosperity in Latin America and the Caribbean

by Lourdes Rodriguez-Chamussy, World Bank, Mercedes Mateo Diaz
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The recent past has witnessed phenomenal growth in MFIs around the world. Today as many as 200 million people are beneficiaries of microfinance. Given its worldwide attention, microfinance has received serious criticism, including the argument that it is a fad with less-than-expected benefits for the poor. Surely, microfinance is not ...
Beyond ending poverty: the dynamics of microfinance in Bangladesh
The recent past has witnessed phenomenal growth in MFIs around the world. Today as many as 200 million people are beneficiaries of microfinance. Given its worldwide attention, microfinance has received serious criticism, including the argument that it is a fad with less-than-expected benefits for the poor. Surely, microfinance is not without any pitfalls. Yet the premise of improving access to financial services for consumption smoothing by the poor has never been a subject of controversy. What has been controversial is whether microfinance can alleviate poverty. That the poor lack an effective and affordable alternative financing mechanism to support income generation does not necessarily mean microfinance is a panacea since it involves entrepreneurial skills, which many poor lack. It is little wonder that studies evaluating the benefits of microfinance have produced conflicting results. Of course, study findings are contextual: They are positive in conducive environments and less so in unfavorable ones. Microfinance must be distinguished from anti-poverty schemes (e.g., conditional cash transfers) because benefits from microfinance-supported activities, which involve participants' entrepreneurial skills and ability, take time to realise. This book using household long panel survey of 1991/92-2010/11 from Bangladesh addresses some of criticisms - including whether pushing microfinance has made it redundant as a tool for poverty reduction - while investigating whether it still matters for the poor after two decades of extensive growth. The book's findings confirm the positive effects of continued borrowing from a microfinance program. Despite a manifold increase in microfinance borrowing, loan recovery has not declined and long-term borrowers are not trapped in poverty or debt. Interest rates charged by MFIs are not too high for realizing returns on investment, although the MFIs have scope for lowering them. The book is expected to contribute to the ongoing debate on the cost-effectiveness of microfinance as a tool for inclusive growth and development. It is expected to fill knowledge gaps in understanding the various virtues of microfinance against its portrayal as having drifted from its original poverty-reduction mission
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41.950000 USD

Beyond ending poverty: the dynamics of microfinance in Bangladesh

by Hussain A Samad, M. A. Baqui Khalily, World Bank, Shahidur R. Khandker
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The central hypothesis examined in this report is whether inequality of opportunities (as opposed to inequality of outcomes) - starting from early in life and culminating into opportunities in the labor market - explains part of what many have labeled the Arab inequality puzzle.
Uneven Odds, Unequal Outcomes: Inequality of Opportunity in the Middle East and North Africa
The central hypothesis examined in this report is whether inequality of opportunities (as opposed to inequality of outcomes) - starting from early in life and culminating into opportunities in the labor market - explains part of what many have labeled the Arab inequality puzzle.
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31.450000 USD

Uneven Odds, Unequal Outcomes: Inequality of Opportunity in the Middle East and North Africa

by World Bank
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The second edition of the Impact Evaluation in Practice handbook is a comprehensive and accessible introduction to impact evaluation for policy makers and development practitioners. First published in 2011, it has been used widely across the development and academic communities. The book incorporates real-world examples to present practical guidelines for ...
Impact evaluation in practice
The second edition of the Impact Evaluation in Practice handbook is a comprehensive and accessible introduction to impact evaluation for policy makers and development practitioners. First published in 2011, it has been used widely across the development and academic communities. The book incorporates real-world examples to present practical guidelines for designing and implementing impact evaluations. Readers will gain an understanding of impact evaluations and the best ways to use them to design evidence-based policies and programs. The updated version covers the newest techniques for evaluating programs and includes state-of-the-art implementation advice, as well as an expanded set of examples and case studies that draw on recent development challenges. It also includes new material on research ethics and partnerships to conduct impact evaluation. The handbook is divided into four sections: Part One discusses what to evaluate and why; Part Two presents the main impact evaluation methods; Part Three addresses how to manage impact evaluations; Part Four reviews impact evaluation sampling and data collection. Case studies illustrate different applications of impact evaluations. The book links to complementary instructional material available online, including an applied case as well as questions and answers. The updated second edition will be a valuable resource for the international development community, universities, and policy makers looking to build better evidence around what works in development.
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47.250000 USD

Impact evaluation in practice

by M. J. Christel Vermeersch, B. Laura Rawlings, Patrick Premand, Sebastian Martinez, World Bank, J. Paul Gertler
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Too often, even reform leaders in countries fail to adopt and implement policies that they know are necessary for sustained economic development. They are encumbered by adverse political incentives, running the risk of losing office should they try to do the right thing. When technically sound policies are selected on ...
Making politics work for development: harnessing transparency and citizen engagement
Too often, even reform leaders in countries fail to adopt and implement policies that they know are necessary for sustained economic development. They are encumbered by adverse political incentives, running the risk of losing office should they try to do the right thing. When technically sound policies are selected on paper, implementation through the public system can run into perverse norms of behavior among public officials and citizens to extract private benefits from the public sector at the expense of the greater public interest. Making Politics Work for Development is about how to make politics work for economic development rather than against it. It focuses on research about two forces - citizens' political engagement and transparency - that explain and hold the potential to improve political incentives and norms of behavior in the public sector. The research shows that the confluence of transparency and political engagement can be a driving force for countries to transition toward better functioning public sector institutions, starting with their own initial and contextual conditions. To harness the potential of these forces, policy actors should target transparency to nourish the quality of political engagement so that citizens can hold leaders accountable for the public goods needed for development.
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36.750000 USD

Making politics work for development: harnessing transparency and citizen engagement

by Corinne Stephenson, Frederico Finan, Claudio Ferraz, Ernesto Dal Bo, Stuti Khemani, World Bank
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Global growth prospects have deteriorated in 2016. Emerging market and developing economies are facing increased external headwinds, including softer growth in advanced economies. Commodity exporters are struggling with particularly challenging conditions, while commodity importers are thus far showing greater resilience. Global growth is expected to gradually accelerate in 2017-18, but ...
Global economic prospects, June 2016: divergences and risks
Global growth prospects have deteriorated in 2016. Emerging market and developing economies are facing increased external headwinds, including softer growth in advanced economies. Commodity exporters are struggling with particularly challenging conditions, while commodity importers are thus far showing greater resilience. Global growth is expected to gradually accelerate in 2017-18, but downside risks to the outlook are increasingly pronounced. In addition to discussing global and regional economic developments and prospects, this edition of Global Economic Prospects includes two Special Focus essays of critical importance for emerging and developing economies: an analysis of the buildup of private debt in emerging and frontier markets and a quantitative study of uncertainties surrounding global growth.
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36.750000 USD

Global economic prospects, June 2016: divergences and risks

by World Bank
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This manual focuses on measuring the effects of training and institutional development programs on individuals, the organizations or economic sectors in which they work, and the welfare of the larger community. It presents a conceptual framework as well as real-life examples drawn from evaluations of the Economic Development Institute's learning ...
Evaluating the Impact of Training and Institutional Development Programs: A Collaborative Approach
This manual focuses on measuring the effects of training and institutional development programs on individuals, the organizations or economic sectors in which they work, and the welfare of the larger community. It presents a conceptual framework as well as real-life examples drawn from evaluations of the Economic Development Institute's learning and capacity-building programs in the developing world. It provides practical advice on developing evaluation plans, designing questionnaires, conducting interviews, analyzing data, reporting findings, and making recommendations. Emphasis is placed on the active participation of stakeholders throughout the process.
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20.480000 USD

Evaluating the Impact of Training and Institutional Development Programs: A Collaborative Approach

by World Bank, Suzanne Tashereau
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The International Comparison Program (ICP) is a global statistical initiative to collect comparative price data to estimate Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs) of the currencies of the world's economies. PPPs are a form of exchange rate between currencies that is based on price comparisons for every country with more than 1,000 ...
Measuring the Real Size of the World Economy: The Framework, Methodology, and Results of the International Comparison Program (ICP)
The International Comparison Program (ICP) is a global statistical initiative to collect comparative price data to estimate Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs) of the currencies of the world's economies. PPPs are a form of exchange rate between currencies that is based on price comparisons for every country with more than 1,000 goods and services. The ICP has become not only the largest international statistical program in the world, but also the most complex. The first coordinated attempt to produce purchasing power parities was carried out from 1967 to 1970 and was based on 10 countries. In the years leading up to 2005, six rounds of the ICP were conducted, each with more countries and improved methodology, with the 2005 ICP including 146 countries. The lessons learned from previous ICP rounds led to the development of several significantly new and improved methods for the 2005 ICP. The subsequent analysis of the 2005 data set the stage for additional improvements to the 2011 ICP. This volume provides a comprehensive review of the statistical theory and methods underlying the estimation of PPPs and real expenditures, the choices made for the 2005 ICP round, and the lessons learned that led to improvements in the 2011 ICP. Disclosing the theory, concepts, and methods underlying estimates enhances the transparency of the 2011 ICP process. This allows interested stakeholders and users to fully understand the strengths, limitations, and assumptions underlying the estimates. This volume also contains several chapters about uses of the data from the 2005 ICP. These uses are significant because they expand the boundaries of the needs served by the ICP to encompass poverty estimation and analysis of the global economic situation. Worldwide, no other statistical programme requires so much cooperation among national, regional, and international organisations. The ICP greatly depends on the overwhelming support received from national statistical offices. They assume the effort of and responsibility for providing the prices and other measures underlying all components of the gross domestic product and breaking it down into sub-aggregates.
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57.750000 USD

Measuring the Real Size of the World Economy: The Framework, Methodology, and Results of the International Comparison Program (ICP)

by World Bank
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Countries worldwide are struggling to imitate the industrial prowess of the East Asian pacesetters, but growth accelerations have proven remarkably transient. Building a portfolio of tradable goods and services and steadily raising the level of investment in these activities, has generally defied the best policy efforts - in particular, bringing ...
Some Small Countries do it Better: Rapid Growth and its Causes in Singapore, Finland and Ireland
Countries worldwide are struggling to imitate the industrial prowess of the East Asian pacesetters, but growth accelerations have proven remarkably transient. Building a portfolio of tradable goods and services and steadily raising the level of investment in these activities, has generally defied the best policy efforts - in particular, bringing investment ratios on par with East Asian averages has presented the greatest challenge. Hence the search is on for growth recipes not so tightly bound to investment, to manufacturing activities, and to the export of manufactured products. In casting around for such recipes validated by demonstrated results, the experience of economies which have relied more on other drivers of growth - human capital and knowledge - is highly attractive. Finland and Ireland are among the tiny band of small nations that grew rapidly for well over a decade by achieving the maximum mileage from an adequate investment in physical assets and by harnessing the potential of human capital and technologies.
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26.250000 USD

Some Small Countries do it Better: Rapid Growth and its Causes in Singapore, Finland and Ireland

by Kaoru Nabeshima, World Bank, Shahid Yusuf
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Poor people living in slums are at particularly high risk from the impacts of climate change and natural hazards. They live on the most vulnerable lands within cities, typically areas that are deemed undesirable by others and are thus affordable. Residents are exposed to the impacts of landslides, sea-level rise, ...
Climate Change, Disaster Risk, and the Urban Poor: Cities Building Resilience for a Changing World
Poor people living in slums are at particularly high risk from the impacts of climate change and natural hazards. They live on the most vulnerable lands within cities, typically areas that are deemed undesirable by others and are thus affordable. Residents are exposed to the impacts of landslides, sea-level rise, flooding, and other hazards. Exposure to risk is exacerbated by overcrowded living conditions, lack of adequate infrastructure and services, unsafe housing, inadequate nutrition, and poor health. These conditions can turn a natural hazard or change in climate into a disaster, and result in the loss of basic services, damage or destruction to homes, loss of livelihoods, malnutrition, disease, disability, and loss of life.
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31.500000 USD

Climate Change, Disaster Risk, and the Urban Poor: Cities Building Resilience for a Changing World

by World Bank
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This volume focuses on the political economy surrounding the detailed decisions that governments make at each step of the value chain for natural resource management. From the perspective of public interest or good governance, many resource-dependent developing countries pursue apparently short-sighted and sub-optimal policies in relation to the extraction and ...
Rents to Riches?: The Political Economy of Natural Resource-Led Development
This volume focuses on the political economy surrounding the detailed decisions that governments make at each step of the value chain for natural resource management. From the perspective of public interest or good governance, many resource-dependent developing countries pursue apparently short-sighted and sub-optimal policies in relation to the extraction and capture of resource rents, and to spending and savings from their resource endowments. This work contextualises these micro-level choices and outcomes.
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41.950000 USD

Rents to Riches?: The Political Economy of Natural Resource-Led Development

by World Bank, Lorena Vinuela, Tuan Minh Le, Kai Kaiser, Naazneen Barma
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Climate change threatens to derail development, even as development pumps ever-greater quantities of carbon dioxide into an atmosphere already polluted with two centuries of Western emissions. The World Bank, with a newly-articulated Strategic Framework on Development and Climate Change, must confront these entangled threats in helping its clients to carve ...
Climate Change and the World Bank Group: Phase I - An Evaluation of World Bank Win-Win Energy Policy Reforms
Climate change threatens to derail development, even as development pumps ever-greater quantities of carbon dioxide into an atmosphere already polluted with two centuries of Western emissions. The World Bank, with a newly-articulated Strategic Framework on Development and Climate Change, must confront these entangled threats in helping its clients to carve out a sustainable growth path. This evaluation assesses the Bank's experience with key win-win policies in the energy sector.
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31.500000 USD

Climate Change and the World Bank Group: Phase I - An Evaluation of World Bank Win-Win Energy Policy Reforms

by Kenneth Chomitz, World Bank
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The World Bank Group has made important contributions to poverty reduction in developing countries. But to stay relevant under the uncertain conditions that characterise today's global development context, the Bank Group needs to enhance its capacity to help clients cope with weak economic growth, address persistent disparities in development progress, ...
Results and Performance of the World Bank Group 2012
The World Bank Group has made important contributions to poverty reduction in developing countries. But to stay relevant under the uncertain conditions that characterise today's global development context, the Bank Group needs to enhance its capacity to help clients cope with weak economic growth, address persistent disparities in development progress, and manage the increasingly global and cross-cutting nature of development solutions. The messages in this report from the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) seek to help the Bank Group improve its programs and development outcomes. Thus the primary audience is Bank Group management. Additional audiences include other development organisations, nongovernmental organisations, and civil society organisations that are involved in development issues, as they also seek better development outcomes. This report addresses IEG's work over the last year, summarising findings from its evaluations and discussing the trends that are revealed. In particular, as a consequence of the Bank Group's rapid, large-scale response to the 2008-09 crisis, the Bank's remaining capital headroom precludes a comparable expansion should another crisis occur. In addition, the extent to which country programmes meet their objectives has yet to reach the performance target set in the Bank's Corporate Scorecard. Development outcome ratings of Bank-funded investment projects, as well as the outcome ratings for International Finance Corporation (IFC) investments, have recently declined. IEG's findings suggest that enhancing the quality of projects at their outset as well as their supervision would help reverse the decline in Bank project ratings; along the same line, improving IFC's work quality would strengthen the results of its investments. Evaluation evidence also underscores the importance of sustained dialogue with stakeholders and of high-quality analytical work to sharpen the understanding of client circumstances, which is essential for successful outcomes. Effective development solutions require intensified efforts by the Bank Group to work across conventional boundaries.
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23.100000 USD

Results and Performance of the World Bank Group 2012

by World Bank, Heather Dittbrenner
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Impact evaluation has grown more popular as a method for identifying the causal links between interventions and outcomes. These kind of evaluations assess changes that can be attributed to a particular intervention. Both innovations in statistical methods and the demand for evaluations that can measure such development results are increasing. ...
World Bank Group Impact Evaluations: Relevance and Effectiveness
Impact evaluation has grown more popular as a method for identifying the causal links between interventions and outcomes. These kind of evaluations assess changes that can be attributed to a particular intervention. Both innovations in statistical methods and the demand for evaluations that can measure such development results are increasing. The World Bank Group is the largest producer of impact evaluations among all development institutions. Thus, IEG has evaluated the relevance, quality, and influence of World Bank and IFC impact evaluations. IEG finds that the World Bank Group portfolio of impact evaluations is largely aligned with sector strategies and project objectives. Selection and coordination of impact evaluations has been improving. Most World Bank impact evaluations meet either medium or high quality standards, and about half of IFC impact evaluations did. Issues related to funding, staff capacity, and incentives, however, constrain the scope and coverage of impact evaluations in the Bank Group. IEG makes five recommendations to strengthen the Bank Group's impact evaluation efforts, revolving around consistency, coordination, quality standards, and ensuring operational relevance. Both development and evaluation professionals will find valuable lessons in this evaluation. There are real benefits from impact evaluations, including their influence on development practices through contributions to project assessment and design of future projects. Thus, development practitioners engaged in designing projects, evaluators interested in using similar methodology, and the general evaluation community will be able to use the lessons IEG sets out in this report.
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27.250000 USD

World Bank Group Impact Evaluations: Relevance and Effectiveness

by World Bank
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This volume first examines projected demographic changes that will affect the economic well-being of China's rural elderly over the next twenty years, taking into account both China's sharp demographic transition and the continued migration of young adults into cities. The projected old age dependency ratio of 34 percent in China's ...
The Elderly and Old Age Support in Rural China
This volume first examines projected demographic changes that will affect the economic well-being of China's rural elderly over the next twenty years, taking into account both China's sharp demographic transition and the continued migration of young adults into cities. The projected old age dependency ratio of 34 percent in China's rural areas by 2030 suggests that support of the elderly is likely to be an increasing burden on China's families over the next twenty years. The book next documents the sources of financial support, poverty incidence and vulnerability of the rural elderly since the early 1990s. China's rural elderly have been consistently poorer and more vulnerable to poverty than both working age households and the urban elderly. In contrast to the urban elderly who frequently have pension support, the rural elderly typically rely either on their own labor income or financial support from adult children. A substantial share of China's rural elderly continue to work well beyond the age 70, but labor as a primary source of support falls sharply during their 60s. Additional evidence suggests that the rural elderly work well beyond 60 out of necessity and only stop working when physically incapacitated. While average transfers from adult children to elderly parents are sufficient to keep them out of poverty, adult migrant children with uncertain income create the risk that transfers will not be sufficient to keep some rural elderly out of poverty. The final sections of the book review experiences with rural pensions during the 1990s and 2000s and draws out the lessons which have informed the design of a new national rural pension scheme. Among the many issues discussed, the report highlights the importance of providing incentives for participation in the pension scheme and important issues related to the portability of pensions for a mobile population.
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26.250000 USD

The Elderly and Old Age Support in Rural China

by World Bank, Fang Cai, Philip O'Keefe, Dewen Wang, John Giles
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The rapid increases in world food prices since 2005 have raised widespread concerns about their possible impact on poverty, hunger, and general progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. This year's report summarizes the short- and long-term impact of food prices on several MDGs, explores future trends, and review policy responses, ...
Global Monitoring Report 2012: Food Prices, Nutrition, and the Millennium Development Goals
The rapid increases in world food prices since 2005 have raised widespread concerns about their possible impact on poverty, hunger, and general progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. This year's report summarizes the short- and long-term impact of food prices on several MDGs, explores future trends, and review policy responses, from domestic policies such as social safety nets, nutritional programs and agricultural policies, to regional trade policies to support by the international community. This year's theme is used as a filter to examine progress toward the MDGs--especially for women, children, and countries in fragile situations. The Global Monitoring Report is prepared jointly by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.
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38.39 USD

Global Monitoring Report 2012: Food Prices, Nutrition, and the Millennium Development Goals

by International Monetary Fund, World Bank
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The informal sector in West Africa has some distinctive characteristics. Informality usually connotes small and unorganized producers operating on the fringes of the formal economy. In West African countries, however, the normal situation is to some extent reversed: a dynamic informal sector dominates the stagnant formal economy. Moreover, in these ...
The Informal Sector in Francophone Africa: Firm, Size, Productivity, and Institutions
The informal sector in West Africa has some distinctive characteristics. Informality usually connotes small and unorganized producers operating on the fringes of the formal economy. In West African countries, however, the normal situation is to some extent reversed: a dynamic informal sector dominates the stagnant formal economy. Moreover, in these countries, small operators coexist with very large and politically well-connected informal enterprises and well-organized networks. Notwithstanding its importance, there have been relatively few systematic studies of this dual feature of the informal sector in West Africa, and consequently too little is known about it. One of our hypotheses is that determinants and appropriate policy responses are likely to differ between large and small informal operations. This volume focuses on the urban informal sector in three capital cities: Dakar (Senegal), Cotonou (Benin) and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). These three countries have important differences and as a group, are quite representative of francophone West Africa and to a lesser extent West Africa as a whole. The authors use a mix of quantitative and qualitative approaches with data obtained from our new Bank surveys of 900 firms in the three cities, interviews with knowledgeable stakeholders and participants, and all available secondary data. For the surveys, the authors designed their sampling strategy to include three distinctive categories of firms: formal, small informal, and large informal. In addition, they developed a comprehensive definition of informality to reflect its complexity and heterogeneneity. The definition (Chapter 1) covers six components of informality, whereas previous definitions are generally limited to a binary classification based on one or two indicators. The results for West Africa corroborate many findings from earlier studies, particularly for small informal firms. In addition, the authors break new ground by shedding light on the large informal sector and the influence of institutional and socio-cultural factors in shaping the informal sector.
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36.700000 USD

The Informal Sector in Francophone Africa: Firm, Size, Productivity, and Institutions

by Robert P. Hughes, Nancy Benjamin, World Bank
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This book makes a compelling case for reintegrating structural issues into agricultural and rural development policies, which have for the last 30 years over-focused on short-term issues. It shows how the liberalization of agriculture in many late developing countries has not in fact led to the development of the vibrant ...
Structural Transformation and Rural Change Revisited: Challenges for Late Developing Countries in a Globalizing World
This book makes a compelling case for reintegrating structural issues into agricultural and rural development policies, which have for the last 30 years over-focused on short-term issues. It shows how the liberalization of agriculture in many late developing countries has not in fact led to the development of the vibrant rural non-farm economy so often discussed in the literature. Neither has it led to a large-scale integration of agricultural producers into the global economy. Most producers remain engaged in traditional crops-mainly staples-and in traditional marketing systems characterized by limited contractualization. Yet in spite of these observations the book draws optimistic conclusions: there are a clear set of policy priorities that, if adapted to individual country contexts, can facilitate an enduring and productive rural transformation. The book is based on an in-depth seven-country study that surveyed 8,000 rural households. It specifically focuses on these households' activity and income structures in an evolving agricultural context marked by liberalization and trends of increasing economic integration. In doing so it reviews the very different levels (and trajectories) of rural diversification among countries at various stages in the structural transformation process. Among late developers, such as the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, a common observation is an incipient economic transition that is accompanied by a strong process of demographic transition. Consequently, growing cohorts of new labor market entrants pose a dramatic challenge. This new demographic structure offers a huge opportunity for growth if it can be accommodated, and if not it represents a serious political and economic liability. If overall economic diversification is the major avenue for change, sustainable growth, and job creation, then it is clear that agriculture and the rural economy will have a critical role to play in the coming two decades. Based on its investigation of existing rural realities, the book suggests several policy orientations. These include a clear need to focus on staples and family agriculture, to engage in targeted development strategies at the regional level, and to pursue a policy of territorial development that promotes strong rural-urban linkages at the level of rural localities, towns and districts.
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36.700000 USD

Structural Transformation and Rural Change Revisited: Challenges for Late Developing Countries in a Globalizing World

by Eric Thomas White, Sandrine Freguin-Gresh, Bruno Losch, World Bank
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Mexico is experiencing significant demographic, social, and economic changes, and the distinct roles of women and men in the Mexican economy are changing as well. In both urban and rural areas, large numbers of young Mexican women are entering the labor force, and as girls' education reaches parity with boys, ...
The Economics of Gender in Mexico: Work, Family, State and Market
Mexico is experiencing significant demographic, social, and economic changes, and the distinct roles of women and men in the Mexican economy are changing as well. In both urban and rural areas, large numbers of young Mexican women are entering the labor force, and as girls' education reaches parity with boys, this trend will intensify. However, women continue to face special constraints on their economic activities which are largely related to their household roles and responsibilities. Macroeconomic change affects Mexican men, who must deal with shifting labor market opportunities and government policies. 'The Economics of Gender in Mexico' examines gender differences in the Mexican economy, with a specific focus on labor markets. Gender differences are reviewed over the course of a life cycle, beginning with education and child labor, and on through adult urban and rural labor force participation. This book also considers the situation of the elderly women and men in Mexico. Each chapter uses different data sources and analytical methodologies but the volume in its entirety is guided by a gender perspective that looks at the situation of both men and women as distinct groups and in relationship to one another. The chapters contain detailed quantitative analysis drawing on national labor force statistics, specialized regional household surveys, and firm-level data. This volume is based on the commissioning of a series of technical papers by the World Bank, in collaboration with several Mexican government agencies.
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24.680000 USD

The Economics of Gender in Mexico: Work, Family, State and Market

by World Bank
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Health insurance can offer protection against catastrophic medical expenses and improve access to health care. There are, however, imperfections in the insurance market that require intervention such as asymmetry of information between the policy holder and the insurance company, moral hazard that can occur on the side of the insured ...
Private Voluntary Health Insurance: Consumer Protection and Prudential Regulation
Health insurance can offer protection against catastrophic medical expenses and improve access to health care. There are, however, imperfections in the insurance market that require intervention such as asymmetry of information between the policy holder and the insurance company, moral hazard that can occur on the side of the insured or the provider of health services, risk selection that may lead to cream skim a particular market, and others. To encourage the effective development of Voluntary Private Health Insurance, it will be necessary for policymakers to establish and enforce regulatory standards that will attempt to correct inefficiencies from market failures and that will achieve desired social objectives. This book is intended to help countries that are contemplating how to design and implement a legal framework for a private health insurance market. First, it provides an overview of private health insurance, the rationale for insurance regulation, and the institutions involved in administering insurance laws. It then reviews the key standards and protections that are often used in regulating private health insurance. As part of the discussion on regulatory standards, options for supervisors in certain areas where policy and regulation approaches vary will be noted. To illustrate international experience, examples of the regulation of private health insurance from several low, middle, and high-income countries will be drawn upon throughout the book.
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21.000000 USD

Private Voluntary Health Insurance: Consumer Protection and Prudential Regulation

by World Bank, Greg Brunner, Nicole Tapay, Somil Nagpal, Vijayasekar Kalavakonda, Birgit Hansl, Pablo Gottret, Alexander S. Preker
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