This is a book on assessment in mathematics in nine European countries with a focus on gender difficulties in achievement. Few of the countries differentiate their assessment results by gender despite the findings from those that do, which indicate that attainment is indeed affected by girls' responses to learning and assessment styles. No country differentiates by race, again despite indications from the USA that results are racially differentiated. The author sets the context, identifying the different patterns of assessment and the results of differentiated outcomes. She outlines the data collection procedures needed so that differentiation in mathematics attainment can be effectively monitored and she speculates on the researchable questions that would bring European education closer to a social justice approach to assessment in mathematics.