Where the Butterfly Alights: The Global Location of EWork

This study forms part of the EMERGENCE project, which is designed to measure and map information and communications technology-related employment (eWork) relocation on a global level. Information collected by Eurostat and the United Kingdom Labour Force Survey were the primary sources of data analyzed. Twelve factors identified as influencing eWork location (relative service sector salaries; graduate availability; language; students studying abroad; time zone; telecommunications infrastructure; quantity of telecommunications traffic; telecommunications costs; trust or previous contact; Internet access and literacy; economic development and "openness"; and demographic factors) led to the identification of these six clusters of countries or characterizations of countries' eWork status: (1) eLeaders (those countries that define eWork and are the main sources of relocated employment, such as Australia, France, Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, and the United States); (2) eCapables (smaller e-Leaders, including Austria and Belgium, among others); (3) eHares (small countries with historically poor telecommunications infrastructure but rapid recent growth, including Cambodia and Chile); (4) eTigers (large countries with good infrastructure, available human resources but also corruption, including China and Egypt, among others); (5) eMaybes (small population countries with good infrastructure and available human resources and that are considered trustworthy); (6) eLosers (countries, composing as much as 28 percent of the world's population, that have neither the infrastructure or human resources to benefit from eWork). (Two appendixes list employees in information technology occupations by countries and regions in 1999 and contents of the e-indicator database produced during the EMERGENCE project). (CL/KC)