This volume analyses the renewal of Western moral thought in the twelfth century. This renewal was marked by a burgeoning of increasingly systematized texts, a lively reception of ancient moral philosophy and a greater emphasis on the psychology of the moral agent. Five contributions are devoted to monastic morality (Anselm of Canterbury, Bernard of Clairvaux, Hugh of Folieto, Hugh of Saint Victor, Peter Abelard); another five to (proto-)scholastic thought (John of Salisbury, Peter Abelard, Stephen Langton, the idea of natural virtue, the justification of lying); three discuss moral issues in a wider social context (liberality vs. avarice, royal justice in England, the cardinal virtues and the French monarchy). The two remaining contributions explore ethical traditions in Islamic and Jewish philosophy. With contributions by Istvan P. Bejczy, Celine Billot-Vilandreau, Marcia L. Colish, Jeroen Laemers, John Kitchen, Cary J. Nederman, Richard G. Newhauser, Willemien Otten, Burcht Pranger, Riccardo Quinto, Ineke van 't Spijker, Arjo Vanderjagt, Bjorn Weiler and George Wilkes.