This book examines the history of the supranational authority of the papal government, including its military policies, and global arbitrations. As nations are getting more interdependent and wars potentially more destructive, a global mediating organization became a necessity in our time. In centuries past the papal government exercised the function of arbitrating among nations, censuring sovereigns, and ensuring political legitimacy as understood at the time. The papacy had all the attributes of a world government: a chief executive, taxing authority, armed forces, enforceable laws, courts of justice, authority over national governments, and global reach. Rulers recognized the universal scope of papal authority, and applied to the papal throne for a royal crown, for military assitance, and for validation of world-wide colonial spheres.