In recent years the Swedish drug control system has been much discussed as a drug policy model. Their restrictive approach receives strong support from the Swedish population and is often presented as an effective answer to the drug problem. On the international political scene. Sweden proclaims the effectiveness of its drug policy reform - a development that has been reinforced since Sweden joined the European Union in 1995. In international drug policy debates, prohibitionists repeatedly refer to the Swedish model as an example of how a restrictive drug policy, combined with education and treatment, can be effective. This is the first thorough analysis of Swedish drug policy that critically examines the claims about drug use and drug policy in Sweden. It places Swedish drug policy in historical context and shows that the Swedish model can only be understood in terms of the social conditions under which this policy developed. It describes the Swedish drug policy in practice and offers new understanding of the rise in drug use Sweden is facing.