The pre-revolutionary Russian economy was backward and stagnant. Whatever the criticisms of the economy post-revolution, the turnaround in terms of growth and output was staggering. This book looks at the alternatives to Stalin's reform program that had such tragic outcomes. Applying the ideas of orthodox economic theory, Marxism and also institutionalism, the volume encourages the reader to think critically about the development of the Russian / Soviet economy, and also examines the original theories of Russian economists of the period. Intelligent writing, incisive insights and impressive originality characterise Vincent Barnett's book, which will be a valuable resource for all economic and political historians with an interest in Russia.