This collection of reports by eminent researchers provides a complete description of the effects of opiates on the central nervous system of developing and adult animals. The work is useful to investigators interested in opiate neurobiology and clinicians seeking to understand opiate abuse. The Neurobiology of Opiates is organized into sections which describe the wide diversity of opiate actions from cellular and molecular to developmental and behavioral. Normal functions of endogenous opioid peptides and functional effects of exogenous opiate exposure are examined using the latest in vivo and in vitro methods. Particular emphasis is placed on the physiological and pharmacological effects of opiate dependence and withdrawal, in addition to the mechanism of opiate reinforcement and molecular mechanisms of opiate regulation. Opiate actions on the developing brain and in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis are also discussed. This comprehensive text provides readers with the latest results and challenges them with new directions for opiate research.