This book provides a detailed description of a most important unsolved mathematical problem - the Goldbach conjecture. Raised in 1742 in a letter from Goldbach to Euler, this conjecture attracted the attention of many mathematical geniuses. Several great achievements were made, but only until the 1920's. The book gives an exposition of these results and their impact on mathematics, particularly, number theory. It also presents (partly or wholly) selections from important literature, so that readers can get a full picture of the conjecture.