Later medieval Europe saw a great deal of change and expansion of different kinds. This geographically broad textbook explores these events in a series of core chapters on the different countries, covering the Holy Roman Empire, East-Central Europe, Scandinavia and Russia. It looks not only at political history but also at economy, society and culture, including art, architecture, literature and music. North demonstrates that Europe did not consist of a core and periphery, but of different regions that had divergent developments, and makes sense of these various patterns of historical change. A review of current research debates also introduces readers to the most up to date discussions in the field. This volume provides an excellent, clear and comprehensive survey for students, while also throwing light on these societies from unexpected angles. It offers fresh perspectives on western Europe, comparing English with Scottish and Irish development, looking at the French monarchy in a social context, and incorporating Portugal into the discussion of the Iberian Peninsula. -- .