This monograph translates neuroscientific research to illuminate ongoing and future practices for the rehabilitation of patients with neurologic diseases. The author dissects fundamental concepts, current practices, and clinical trials to define what clinicians and researchers need to consider as they pursue best practices and areas ripe for exploration. Remarkable studies from functional anatomy, neural repair, physiologic imaging of the brain, and brain-machine interfaces reveal how the structure and function of the nervous system may respond to therapeutic manipulations for walking, grasping, and cognition. These concepts are brought forward into treating the medical complications and the impairments and disabilities of patients across neurologic diseases.