The second edition of this widely acclaimed book considers the extent to which the Baltic states have succeeded politically and economically in their aspirations to emulate Western institutions since independence. The book has been completely revised since the first edition to account for the rapid changes in the countries themselves, and in the theories that attempt to generalize the patterns of development in post-communist countries. The Baltic States after Independence, Second Edition provides a thorough analysis of the political and economic systems of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It sheds new light on the processes and obstacles which have characterized the Baltic transition from the Soviet system. The authors examine the history of these countries and the movements towards democracy, institutional change and economic development during the post-communist era. In addition, they analyse other issues including national identity, security and Western integration, and have included a new chapter on international relations, reflecting the changing issues faced by the Baltic states. This book offers a unique insight into political, economic and social life in the three independent Baltic states which will be welcomed by academics and students working in the areas of political science, economic development and transition studies.