This is the second volume of the SiBil series to present results from the European Science Foundation's project 'Second language acquisition by adult immigrants'. It deals specifically with the acquisition of temporality in five European languages: Dutch, English, French, German and Swedish, providing a detailed account of how adult learners who have little or no exposure to classroom teaching, express temporality at any given stage of the acquisition process, how they proceed from one stage to the next, and what factors determine both their progress and their final levels of proficiency. The guiding hypotheses, methodology, and theoretical framework for analysing temporality from a cross-linguistic perspective are given in Chapters 1 and 2. The detailed longitudinal analyses of Chapters 3-7 form the backbone of the book. Chapter 8 contains the cross-linguistic generalizations, the factors which account for them, and the wider theoretical implications of the study.