This monograph explores the close relationship of various well-known pattern recognition problems that have so far been considered independent. These relationships became apparent with the discovery of formal procedures for addressing known problems and their generalisations. The generalised problem formulations were analysed mathematically and unified algorithms were found. The main scientific contribution of this book is the unification of two main streams in pattern recognition - the statistical one and the structural one. The material is presented in the form of ten lectures, each of which concludes with a discussion with a student. It provides new views and numerous original results in their field. Written in an easily accessible style, it introduces the basic building blocks of pattern recognition, demonstrates the beauty and the pitfalls of scientific research, and encourages good habits in reading mathematical text.