Symbols as Power: Papacy Following the Investiture Contest

Symbols as Power concentrates on the papacy from the end of the Investiture Contest in 1122 until the re-establishment of the Roman Senate in 1143. By combining an investigation of such media as art, architecture, and liturgy with written sources it helps to illuminate the ideology and the policies of the individual popes relating to the church, the empire, and the city of Rome.