Sound-Flow Interactions

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TheCarg'eseSummerSchool Sound-?owinteractions washeldinthe- stitutd'EtudesScienti?quesdeCarg'eseinCorsica,Francefrom19thJune to1stJuly,2000. Theunderstandingofsoundand?owinteractionshasmadesomerema- ableprogresssincethepioneeringworksoftheRussianandBritishschools, inthe1950s. Inaddition,thegrowingavailabilityduringthepast10years ofsophisticatedcomputer/electronics/materialstechniquesallowsforthe- velopmentofagrowingnumberofapplicationsaswellasthepossibilityof addressingnewfundamentalproblems. Thecouplingbetweenacousticwaves and?owmotionisbasicallynonlinear,sothatthesoundpropagationand generationismodi?edbythe?owandthe?owcanalsobemodi?edbythe sound. Asaresult,thisproblemisinvestigatedinmanydi?erentscienti?c communities,suchasappliedmathematics,acousticsand?uidmechanics, amongothers. Inouropinion,thetimehadcometotrytogatherthe- searchersinthedi?erentcommunitiestogetherinatutorialenvironemnt. So, thisschoolbroughttogetherworldwidespecialistsinordertopresentvarious aspectsofsound-?owinteractions,andshareexpertiseandmethodologiesso astopromotecross-fertilisation. ThebasicknowledgeintheareaisintroducedbyA. HirschbergandC. Schram. Hepresentstheaeroacousticsofinternal?owinaverylivelyway withalotofillustrationdevices. Heintroducesaeroacousticanalogiesand applicationslikemusicalinstruments,theRijketube,speechproductionetc. M. S. Howeintroducesthetheoryofvortexsoundinaverydidacticway. From Lighthill'sacousticanalogy,heshowshowvorticityandentropy?uctuations canbeseenassourcesofsound. Then,usingthecompactGreen'sfunctions, heshowshowtocomputethevortexsound. Asanexampleofthemethod presented,heappliesthistheorytopressuretransientsgeneratedbyhi- speedtrains. F. Lundgivesthebasicequationsofsound-?owinteractions. Thenheintroducesveryclearlythescatteringofsoundbecauseofvorticity andgivesthemostrecentresultsonultrasoundpropagationthroughadis- dered?ow. V. Ostashevpresentsgeometricalacousticsinmovingmediaand theimportantpracticalproblemofsoundpropagationinturbulence(at- sphere,ocean). A. Fabrikantexaminestheplasma-hydrodynamicsanalogies includingtheresonantwave-?owinteractioninshear?ows,wavesofnegative VI Preface energyandover-re?ectionandacousticoscillatorsin?uid?ows. P. J. Mor- sondescribesthedynamicsofthecontinuousspectrumwhichoccursinshear ?ow. Theresultsareinterpretedinthecontextofin?nitedimensionalHam- toniansystemstheory. G. Chagelishvilipresentsnewlinearmechanismsof acousticwavegenerationinsmoothshear?owsusinganon-modalstudy. N. Peakepresents?uid-structureinteractionsinthepresenceofmean?ows, includingtheproblemsofinstabilityandcausality. Finally,W. Lauterborn presentsnonlinearacousticswithapplicationstosonoluminescenceandto acousticchaos. InthisCarg'eseSummerSchool,54studentsfrom12nations,and11l- turersfrom7nationsparticipated. Aknowledgements. TheSummerSchoolandthispublicationwouldnot havebeenpossiblewithout: *?nancialsupportfromtheEuropeanUnion,theCentreNationaldela RechercheScienti?que,theMinist'eredesA?airesEtrang'eres,theM- ist'eredel'EducationNationale,delaRechercheetdelaTechnologieand theGroupementdeRecherche Turbulence ; *the guidance of Elisabeth Dubois-Violette, director of the Institut d'EtudesScienti?quesdeCarg'ese; *thehelpofChantalAriano,NathalieBedjai,BrigitteCassegrain,Pierre- EricGrossiandthewholeteaminpreparingandhostingofthisschool. Finally,wewishtothankthelecturersforgivingsomuchtimeinprep- ingthelecturesandwritingthemup,aswellasmakingthemselvesavailable fordiscussionsduringtheschool. 1 LeMans,Paris,Lyon YvesAur'egan , 2 September2001 Agn'esMaurel , 1 VincentPagneux , 3 Jean-Fran,coisPinton . 1 Laboratoired'Acoustiquedel'Universit'eduMaine,UMRCNRS6613, Av. OMessiaen,72085LeMansCedex9,France 2 LaboratoireOndesetAcoustique,UMRCNRS7587, ESPCI,10rueVauquelin,75005Paris,France 3 LaboratoiredePhysique,UMRCNRS1325, EcoleNormaleSup'erieuredeLyon,46all'eed'Italie,69007Lyon,France Preface VII SomeofthelecturersoftheCarg'eseSchool,fromlefttoright:M. S. Howe,A. Hirschberg,P. Morrison,W. Lauterborn,V. Ostashev,A. Fabrikant,N. Peake, T. Colonius(PhotoC. Schram) SomeoftheparticipantsoftheCarg'eseSchool(PhotoC. Schram) TableofContents APrimitiveApproachtoAeroacoustics AvrahamHirschberg,ChristopheSchram...1 1 Introduction ...1 2 FluidDynamics ...2 3 Lighthill'sAnalogy...4 4 JetNoise ...7 5 Thermo-Acoustics ...9 6 AcousticalEnergy ...10 7 Rijke-Tube...11 8 Vortex-SoundTheory ...14 9 ChoiceoftheGreen'sFunction...17 10 Howe'?owinteractions,andshareexpertiseandmethodologiesso astopromotecross-fertilisation. ThebasicknowledgeintheareaisintroducedbyA. HirschbergandC. Schram. Hepresentstheaeroacousticsofinternal?owinaverylivelyway withalotofillustrationdevices. Heintroducesaeroacousticanalogiesand applicationslikemusicalinstruments,theRijketube,speechproductionetc. M. S. Howeintroducesthetheoryofvortexsoundinaverydidacticway. From Lighthill'sacousticanalogy,heshowshowvorticityandentropy?uctuations canbeseenassourcesofsound. Then,usingthecompactGreen'sfunctions, heshowshowtocomputethevortexsound. Asanexampleofthemethod presented,heappliesthistheorytopressuretransientsgeneratedbyhi- speedtrains. F. Lundgivesthebasicequationsofsound-?owinteractions. Thenheintroducesveryclearlythescatteringofsoundbecauseofvorticity andgivesthemostrecentresultsonultrasoundpropagationthroughadis- dered?ow. V. Ostashevpresentsgeometricalacousticsinmovingmediaand theimportantpracticalproblemofsoundpropagationinturbulence(at- sphere,ocean). A. Fabrikantexaminestheplasma-hydrodynamicsanalogies includingtheresonantwave-?owinteractioninshear?ows,wavesofnegative VI Preface energyandover-re?ectionandacousticoscillatorsin?uid?ows. P. J. Mor- sondescribesthedynamicsofthecontinuousspectrumwhichoccursinshear ?ow. Theresultsareinterpretedinthecontextofin?nitedimensionalHam- toniansystemstheory. G. Chagelishvilipresentsnewlinearmechanismsof acousticwavegenerationinsmoothshear?owsusinganon-modalstudy. N. Peakepresents?uid-structureinteractionsinthepresenceofmean?ows, includingtheproblemsofinstabilityandcausality. Finally,W. Lauterborn presentsnonlinearacousticswithapplicationstosonoluminescenceandto acousticchaos. InthisCarg'eseSummerSchool,54studentsfrom12nations,and11l- turersfrom7nationsparticipated. Aknowledgements. TheSummerSchoolandthispublicationwouldnot havebeenpossiblewithout: *?nancialsupportfromtheEuropeanUnion,theCentreNationaldela RechercheScienti?que,theMinist'eredesA?airesEtrang'eres,theM- ist'eredel'EducationNationale,delaRechercheetdelaTechnologieand theGroupementdeRecherche Turbulence ; *the guidance of Elisabeth Dubois-Violette, director of the Institut d'EtudesScienti?quesdeCarg'ese; *thehelpofChantalAriano,NathalieBedjai,BrigitteCassegrain,Pierre- EricGrossiandthewholeteaminpreparingandhostingofthisschool. Finally,wewishtothankthelecturersforgivingsomuchtimeinprep- ingthelecturesandwritingthemup,aswellasmakingthemselvesavailable fordiscussionsduringtheschool. 1 LeMans,Paris,Lyon YvesAur'egan , 2 September2001 Agn'esMaurel , 1 VincentPagneux , 3 Jean-FranccoisPinton . 1 Laboratoired'Acoustiquedel'Universit'eduMaine,UMRCNRS6613, Av. OMessiaen,72085LeMansCedex9,France 2 LaboratoireOndesetAcoustique,UMRCNRS7587, ESPCI,10rueVauquelin,75005Paris,France 3 LaboratoiredePhysique,UMRCNRS1325, EcoleNormaleSup'erieuredeLyon,46all'eed'Italie,69007Lyon,France Preface VII SomeofthelecturersoftheCarg'eseSchool,fromlefttoright:M. S. Howe,A. Hirschberg,P. Morrison,W. Lauterborn,V. Ostashev,A. Fabrikant,N. Peake, T. Colonius(PhotoC. Schram) SomeoftheparticipantsoftheCarg'eseSchool(PhotoC. Schram) TableofContents APrimitiveApproachtoAeroacoustics AvrahamHirschberg,ChristopheSchram...1 1 Introduction ...1 2 FluidDynamics ...2 3 Lighthill'sAnalogy...4 4 JetNoise ...7 5 Thermo-Acoustics ...9 6 AcousticalEnergy ...10 7 Rijke-Tube...11 8 Vortex-SoundTheory ...14 9 ChoiceoftheGreen'sFunction...17 10 Howe'sEnergyCorollary ...20 11 TheOpenPipeTerminationofanUn?angedPipe ...21 12 Whistler-NozzleandHumanWhistling ...25 13 Conclusion...27 References...28 LecturesontheTheoryofVortex-Sound MichaelS. Howe...31 1 AerodynamicSound...31 1. 1 Lighthill'sAcousticAnalogy(1952)...31 1. 2 AerodynamicSoundfromLow-Mach-NumberTurbulence ofUniformMeanDensity...34 1. 3 AerodynamicSoundfromLow-Mach-NumberTurbulence ofVariableMeanDensity...35 2 VorticityandEntropyFluctuations asSourcesofSound...37 2. 1 TheRoleofVorticityinLighthill'sTheory...37 2. 2 AcousticAnalogyinTermsoftheTotalEnthalpy...39 2. 3 VorticityandEntropySources...40 3 FundamentalSolutionsoftheWaveEquation...43 3. 1 TheHelmholtzEquation...43 3. 2 TheWaveEquation...46 4 GeneralSolutionoftheInhomogeneousWaveEquation...47 4. 1 GeneralSolutionintheFrequency-Domain...47 X TableofContents 4. 2 GeneralSolutionintheTime-Domain...49 5 CompactGreen'sFunctions...