This book examines the period of State Socialism in Eastern Europe from 1945 to 1989, when social welfare was exercised on two levels. The dominant level was the system of governmental social policy, because individual and private structures of social help were considered as a dispensable bourgeois tradition. According to this perception, social welfare should include an extensive system of support and social services, although, in reality, special groups of 'asocials' and 'parasites' were excluded. Although, with the exception of Yugoslavia, social work as a profession was nearly completely eliminated, with modulated forms of social care still having to be provided, because certain groups - such as the handicapped, the elderly, or the mentally disabled - were still in need. Therefore, social care was realized on a subordinated level, mostly allocated to proximate vocations or organizations like teachers, nurses, and mass organizations. The coverage includes the following countries: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia.