The book explains the self-assembly of nanostructures derived from different materials classes for a broad range of applications. The starting materials comprise biomacromolecules, complex environments at cell surfaces, inorganic building blocks, and synthetic organic polymers. A team of leading experts focuses on the explanation of molecular recognition mechanisms at interfaces that enable control of driving forces for self-organization from the nanometer to the micrometer scale, including biotic-abiotic and inorganic-organic interfaces. The spectrum of topics includes signaling at cell membranes, biologically programmed mineralization of nanostructures, nano-designed building and transportation materials, as well as assembly of soft matter for energy conversion and electronic devices. Structure-property relationships of biological, medicinal, biomimetic, and functional materials from the nanoscale up will be supported by state-of-the-art synthesis, assembly, and characterization techniques, including recent developments in modeling and simulation. The book strives to balance fundamental concepts and emerging applications. The book shows parallels and differences between different fields such as bioengineering, inorganic chemistry, organic electronics, combinatorial materials design, modeling and theory.