Are there connections between the structures of political systems and types of scientific advice to policy making? This volume brings together case studies - from the US, the Netherlands, France, and the European Union - that provide an overview of different institutional arrangements, focusing on issues such as the independence and balance of advice. Common to all is the question: Which forms of advice can increase the rationality of policy making without loss of political legitimacy? Contents include: Advisory Committees in the United States . The Scientific Council for Government Policy . Governing Risks: Designing Regulatory Tools For Pharmaceutical and Food Safety in the European Union . Scientific Expertise in Policy-Making: The Case of Work Policy in France . Measuring the Stakes: The Dutch 'Planning Bureaus'.