Over the last several years, there has been much discussion on the interrelation of CO2 emissions with the global warming phenomenon. This in turn has increased pressure to develop and produce more fuel efficient engines and vehicles. This is the central topic of this book. It covers the underlying processes which cause pollutant emissions and the possibilities of reducing them, as well as the fuel consumption of gasoline and diesel engines, including direct injection diesel engines. As well as the engine-related causes of pollution, which is found in the raw exhaust, there is also a description of systems and methods for exhaust post treatment.The significant influence of fuels and lubricants (both conventional and alternative fuels) on emission behavior is also covered. In addition to the conventional gasoline and diesel engines, lean-burn and direct injection gasoline engines and two-stroke gasoline and diesel engines are included. The potential for reducing fuel consumption and pollution is described as well as the related reduction of CO2 emissions. Finally, a detailed summary of the most important laws and regulations pertaining to pollutant emissions and consumption limits is presented. This book is intended for practising engineers involved in research and applied sciences as well as for interested engineering students.