This report looks at possible areas of cooperation between Pakistan and India, particularly in Afghanistan. Three observations motivate this research. First, regional security will likely be achieved only if at least some degree of cooperation is attained among the region's primary state actors. Second, Afghanistan cannot advance economically or improve its security and governance without some cooperation from India and Pakistan. Third, although many observers view the idea of Pakistani and Indian cooperation with skepticism, there are likely significant security, governance, and economic advantages for both countries should they find more common ground.