Practical Emulsions, Volume 1, Materials and Equipment

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CONTENTS - INTRODUCTION - 1. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS - Solutions-Suspensions-Emulsions-Surface Activity - 2. PROPERTIES OF EMULSIONS - Particle size and arrangement; Rheology; Micelle Theory; Stability and Interfacial Phenomena; Causes of Unstable Emulsions - 3. INGREDIENTS AND ADDITIVES - Surfactants-Emulsifying Agents; Wetting Agents; Foamers; Protective Colloids; Preservatives - 4. ANALYSIS AND TESTING OF EMULSIONS - Type of Emulsion; Density; Viscosity; Surface Tension; Particle Size; Water; PH-Color OdorCorrosion; Stability; Performance; Analytical Procedures; ASTM Specifications - 5. TECHNIQUES OF EMULSIFICATION - English Method-Continental Method - 6. EMULSIFYING EQUIPMENT - Low-Shear-High-Shear-Rotor-Stator; Pressurized Fluid; Vibrational Devices; Laboratory Equipment - 7. EMULSION PLANTS AND PRODUCTION MACHINERY - Over-all Plan; Modes of Operation; Power Requirements; Mixing Tanks; Pumps; Conveyors; Materials of Construction; Instrumentation; Packaging - 8. SELECTED TOPICS - Formulation of Emulsions-HLB-Biodegradability - Regulations - BIBLIOGRAPHY - LIST OF EMULSIFYING AGENTS - SUPPLIERS OF EMULSIFYING AGENTS - GLOSSARY - INDEX - Introduction - Emulsions, though not new, are finding new and wider applications daily. One of the first references to emulsions was recorded by Galen (131-c.201), the Greek physician. Beginning with that early reference to the emulsifying power of beeswax, the art and science of emulsification has flourished. Emulsions are prepared and used for a variety of reasons. As oil paint cannot be applied to a damp surface, it is emulsified in water. The oil paint, then, in the form of an emulsion, can be applied to a damp surface. Therefore, the emulsion can change the application characteristics of a material. Water is a desirable, cheap diluent, and an emulsion is an easy method of using water to dilute materials that are not soluble in water. In addition, the fire hazard of flammable water-insoluble materials can be decreased through emulsification. The odor and taste of water-insoluble materials can be reduced by the use of an emulsion. Cod-liver oil, for example, loses much of its fishy, oily taste when it is emulsified. The kinetics of many reactions are enhanced through the use of emulsion polymerization techniques. On the other hand, emulsions are difficult to manufacture. A small deviation in temperature or mixing speed or small amounts of impurities can prevent the formation of a stable emulsion. Emulsions are sensitive in varying degrees to heat, cold, and age. The production of good, stable emulsions, therefore, is the combination of science and art. It is the purpose of this book to describe the art and technique of emulsification.