Plant Developmental Biology - Biotechnological Perspectives: Volume 2

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Manyexcitingdiscoveriesinrecentdecadeshavecontributednewknowledgeto ourunderstandingofthemechanismsthatregulatevariousstagesofplantgrowth anddevelopment. Suchinformation,coupledwithadvancesincellandmolecular biology,isfundamentaltocropimprovementusingbiotechnologicalapproaches. Twovolumesconstitutethepresentwork. The?rst,comprising22chapters, commenceswithintroductionsrelatingtogeneregulatorymodelsforplantdev- opmentandcropimprovement,particularlytheuseofArabidopsisasamodelplant. Thesechaptersarefollowedbyspeci?ctopicsthatfocusondifferentdevelopmental aspectsassociatedwithvegetativeandreproductivephasesofthelifecycleofa plant. Six chapters discuss vegetative growth and development. Their contents considertopicssuchasshootbranching,buddormancyandgrowth,thedevel- ment of roots, nodules and tubers, and senescence. The reproductive phase of plantdevelopmentisin14chaptersthatpresenttopicssuchas?oralorganinit- tionandtheregulationof?owering,thedevelopmentofmaleandfemalegametes, pollengerminationandtubegrowth,fertilization,fruitdevelopmentandripening, seed development, dormancy, germination, and apomixis. Male sterility and self-incompatibilityarealsodiscussed. Volume2has20chapters,threeofwhichreviewrecentadvancesinsomatic embryogenesis,microsporeembryogenesisandsomaclonalvariation. Sevenofthe chapterstargetplantprocessesandtheirregulation,includingphotosynthatepartiti- ing,seedmaturationandseedstorageproteinbiosynthesis,theproductionandregu- tionoffattyacids,vitamins,alkaloidsand?owerpigments,and?owerscent. This secondbookalsocontainsfourchaptersonhormonalandenvironmentalsignaling (aminocompounds-containinglipids,auxin,cytokinin,andlight)intheregulationof plantdevelopment;othertopicsencompassthemoleculargeneticsofdevelopmental regulation,includingRNAsilencing,DNAmethylation,epigenetics,activationt- ging,homologousrecombination,andtheengineeringofsyntheticpromoters. Thesebookswillserveaskeyreferencesforadvancedstudentsandresearchers involved in a range of plant-orientated disciplines, including genetics, cell and molecularbiology,functionalgenomics,andbiotechnology. August2009 E-C. PuaandM. R. Davey v Contents PartI CellDifferentiationandDevelopmentInVitro 1 DevelopmentalBiologyofSomaticEmbryogenesis ...3 R. J. Rose,F. R. Mantiri,S. Kurdyukov,S-K. Chen,X-D. Wang, K. E. Nolan,andM. B. Sheahan 1. 1 Introduction ...3 1. 2 BasicRequirementsforInVitroSE ...4 1. 3 ExplantandStemCellBiology ...5 1. 3. 1 Genotype ...5 1. 3. 2 ExplantCells ...6 1. 4 EarliestEventinEmbryogenesis-AsymmetricCellDivision ...8 1. 4. 1 CellWallinEstablishmentofPolarity,DivisionAsymmetry andCellFate ...8 1. 4. 2 DivisionAsymmetryintheInitiationofSE ...10 1. 4. 3 AsymmetricDivisionandtheSuspensorinSE ...10 1. 5 StressComponentintheInitiationofSE ...11 1. 5. 1 ReactiveOxygenSpecies ...11 1. 5. 2 Stress-RelatedHormoneSignalling ...12 1. 6 HormonesandtheInitiationofSE ...13 1. 7 InductionofSEbyOver-ExpressionofLeafyCotyledon TranscriptionFactorsandTheirRelationshiptoSEInductionand Repression-theGAConnection ...14 1. 8 ABA,StressandGA ...16 1. 9 SolubleSignalsandCell-CellInteractionsthatPromoteSEin SuspensionCultures ...16 1. 9. 1 SecretedProteinsthatIn?uenceSE ...16 1. 9. 2 AGPSignallinginSE:MechanismsandInteractionsBetween SignallingPathways ...17 1. 9. 3 Cell-AsymmetricCellDivision ...8 1. 4. 1 CellWallinEstablishmentofPolarity,DivisionAsymmetry andCellFate ...8 1. 4. 2 DivisionAsymmetryintheInitiationofSE ...10 1. 4. 3 AsymmetricDivisionandtheSuspensorinSE ...10 1. 5 StressComponentintheInitiationofSE ...11 1. 5. 1 ReactiveOxygenSpecies ...11 1. 5. 2 Stress-RelatedHormoneSignalling ...12 1. 6 HormonesandtheInitiationofSE ...13 1. 7 InductionofSEbyOver-ExpressionofLeafyCotyledon TranscriptionFactorsandTheirRelationshiptoSEInductionand Repression-theGAConnection ...14 1. 8 ABA,StressandGA ...16 1. 9 SolubleSignalsandCell-CellInteractionsthatPromoteSEin SuspensionCultures ...16 1. 9. 1 SecretedProteinsthatIn?uenceSE ...16 1. 9. 2 AGPSignallinginSE:MechanismsandInteractionsBetween SignallingPathways ...17 1. 9. 3 Cell-Manyexcitingdiscoveriesinrecentdecadeshavecontributednewknowledgeto ourunderstandingofthemechanismsthatregulatevariousstagesofplantgrowth anddevelopment. Suchinformation,coupledwithadvancesincellandmolecular biology,isfundamentaltocropimprovementusingbiotechnologicalapproaches. Twovolumesconstitutethepresentwork. The?rst,comprising22chapters, commenceswithintroductionsrelatingtogeneregulatorymodelsforplantdev- opmentandcropimprovement,particularlytheuseofArabidopsisasamodelplant. Thesechaptersarefollowedbyspeci?ctopicsthatfocusondifferentdevelopmental aspectsassociatedwithvegetativeandreproductivephasesofthelifecycleofa plant. Six chapters discuss vegetative growth and development. Their contents considertopicssuchasshootbranching,buddormancyandgrowth,thedevel- ment of roots, nodules and tubers, and senescence. The reproductive phase of plantdevelopmentisin14chaptersthatpresenttopicssuchas?oralorganinit- tionandtheregulationof?owering,thedevelopmentofmaleandfemalegametes, pollengerminationandtubegrowth,fertilization,fruitdevelopmentandripening, seed development, dormancy, germination, and apomixis. Male sterility and self-incompatibilityarealsodiscussed. Volume2has20chapters,threeofwhichreviewrecentadvancesinsomatic embryogenesis,microsporeembryogenesisandsomaclonalvariation. Sevenofthe chapterstargetplantprocessesandtheirregulation,includingphotosynthatepartiti- ing,seedmaturationandseedstorageproteinbiosynthesis,theproductionandregu- tionoffattyacids,vitamins,alkaloidsand?owerpigments,and?owerscent. This secondbookalsocontainsfourchaptersonhormonalandenvironmentalsignaling (aminocompounds-containinglipids,auxin,cytokinin,andlight)intheregulationof plantdevelopment;othertopicsencompassthemoleculargeneticsofdevelopmental regulation,includingRNAsilencing,DNAmethylation,epigenetics,activationt- ging,homologousrecombination,andtheengineeringofsyntheticpromoters. Thesebookswillserveaskeyreferencesforadvancedstudentsandresearchers involved in a range of plant-orientated disciplines, including genetics, cell and molecularbiology,functionalgenomics,andbiotechnology. August2009 E-C. PuaandM. R. Davey v Contents PartI CellDifferentiationandDevelopmentInVitro 1 DevelopmentalBiologyofSomaticEmbryogenesis ...3 R. J. Rose,F. R. Mantiri,S. Kurdyukov,S-K. Chen,X-D. Wang, K. E. Nolan,andM. B. Sheahan 1. 1 Introduction ...3 1. 2 BasicRequirementsforInVitroSE ...4 1. 3 ExplantandStemCellBiology ...5 1. 3. 1 Genotype ...5 1. 3. 2 ExplantCells ...6 1. 4 EarliestEventinEmbryogenesis-AsymmetricCellDivision ...8 1. 4. 1 CellWallinEstablishmentofPolarity,DivisionAsymmetry andCellFate ...8 1. 4. 2 DivisionAsymmetryintheInitiationofSE ...10 1. 4. 3 AsymmetricDivisionandtheSuspensorinSE ...10 1. 5 StressComponentintheInitiationofSE ...11 1. 5. 1 ReactiveOxygenSpecies ...11 1. 5. 2 Stress-RelatedHormoneSignalling ...12 1. 6 HormonesandtheInitiationofSE ...13 1. 7 InductionofSEbyOver-ExpressionofLeafyCotyledon TranscriptionFactorsandTheirRelationshiptoSEInductionand Repression-theGAConnection ...14 1. 8 ABA,StressandGA ...16 1. 9 SolubleSignalsandCell-CellInteractionsthatPromoteSEin SuspensionCultures ...16 1. 9. 1 SecretedProteinsthatIn?uenceSE ...16 1. 9. 2 AGPSignallinginSE:MechanismsandInteractionsBetween SignallingPathways ...17 1. 9. 3 Cell-CellInteractionandRelevancetoSEinSuspension Cultures ...18 vii viii Contents 1. 10 DevelopmentProgramAfterSEInduction ...19 1. 11 ConcludingRemarksandaModelBasedonStudiesin Medicagotruncatula ...19 1. 12 SEandBiotechnology ...20 References ...21 2 MicrosporeEmbryogenesis ...27 A. Olmedilla 2. 1 Introduction ...27 2. 2 DiscoveryoftheProductionofHaploidsbyAntherCulture ...29 2. 3 StrategiesfortheInductionofMicrosporeEmbryogenesis ...29 2. 4 In?uenceofDifferentFactorsinMicrosporeEmbryogenesis ...30 2. 4. 1 Genotype ...30 2. 4. 2 DonorPlantPhysiology ...31 2. 4. 3 StageofPollenDevelopment ...